Abstract

We present a real-time optical system to enhance defects in periodic patterns by use of nonlinear spatial filtering by real-time holography. A straight and equispaced grating written in a bacteriorhodopsin film is read by the Fourier transform of a periodic pattern to be inspected. Because the diffraction efficiency of the grating depends on the intensity of the reading beam, only the defect component can be selectively diffracted and imaged. This system is applicable even to moving objects. We present experimental results that show enhancement of defects as small as 10 µm in a photomask with a pixel pitch of 150 µm used for a liquid-crystal display.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. E. Dom, V. H. Brecher, R. Bonner, J. S. Batchelder, and S. Jaffe, Mach. Vis. Appl. 1, 205 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. L. Fusek, L. H. Lin, K. Harding, and S. Gustafson, Opt. Eng. 24, 731 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. L. Cavan, L. H. Lin, R. B. Howe, R. E. Graves, and L. Fusek, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 1934 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Ochoa, J. W. Goodman, and L. Hesselink, Opt. Lett. 10, 430 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Uhrich and L. Hesselink, Opt. Lett. 17, 1087 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Uhrich and L. Hesselink, Appl. Opt. 33, 744 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, Opt. Acta 31, 579 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Hampp, R. Thoma, D. Oesterhelt, and C. Bräuchle, Appl. Opt. 31, 1834 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2902 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Huang and K. H. Wagner, Appl. Opt. 32, 1888 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

1988 (2)

B. E. Dom, V. H. Brecher, R. Bonner, J. S. Batchelder, and S. Jaffe, Mach. Vis. Appl. 1, 205 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Cavan, L. H. Lin, R. B. Howe, R. E. Graves, and L. Fusek, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 1934 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

R. L. Fusek, L. H. Lin, K. Harding, and S. Gustafson, Opt. Eng. 24, 731 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. Ochoa, J. W. Goodman, and L. Hesselink, Opt. Lett. 10, 430 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, Opt. Acta 31, 579 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2902 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Batchelder, J. S.

B. E. Dom, V. H. Brecher, R. Bonner, J. S. Batchelder, and S. Jaffe, Mach. Vis. Appl. 1, 205 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, R.

B. E. Dom, V. H. Brecher, R. Bonner, J. S. Batchelder, and S. Jaffe, Mach. Vis. Appl. 1, 205 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bräuchle, C.

Brecher, V. H.

B. E. Dom, V. H. Brecher, R. Bonner, J. S. Batchelder, and S. Jaffe, Mach. Vis. Appl. 1, 205 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cavan, D. L.

D. L. Cavan, L. H. Lin, R. B. Howe, R. E. Graves, and L. Fusek, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 1934 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dom, B. E.

B. E. Dom, V. H. Brecher, R. Bonner, J. S. Batchelder, and S. Jaffe, Mach. Vis. Appl. 1, 205 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fusek, L.

D. L. Cavan, L. H. Lin, R. B. Howe, R. E. Graves, and L. Fusek, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 1934 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fusek, R. L.

R. L. Fusek, L. H. Lin, K. Harding, and S. Gustafson, Opt. Eng. 24, 731 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

Graves, R. E.

D. L. Cavan, L. H. Lin, R. B. Howe, R. E. Graves, and L. Fusek, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 1934 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, S.

R. L. Fusek, L. H. Lin, K. Harding, and S. Gustafson, Opt. Eng. 24, 731 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hampp, N.

Harding, K.

R. L. Fusek, L. H. Lin, K. Harding, and S. Gustafson, Opt. Eng. 24, 731 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

Howe, R. B.

D. L. Cavan, L. H. Lin, R. B. Howe, R. E. Graves, and L. Fusek, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 1934 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T.

Jaffe, S.

B. E. Dom, V. H. Brecher, R. Bonner, J. S. Batchelder, and S. Jaffe, Mach. Vis. Appl. 1, 205 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2902 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. H.

D. L. Cavan, L. H. Lin, R. B. Howe, R. E. Graves, and L. Fusek, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 1934 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fusek, L. H. Lin, K. Harding, and S. Gustafson, Opt. Eng. 24, 731 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, Opt. Acta 31, 579 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ochoa, E.

Oesterhelt, D.

Thoma, R.

Todorov, T.

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, Opt. Acta 31, 579 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Uhrich, C.

Wagner, K. H.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2902 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

D. L. Cavan, L. H. Lin, R. B. Howe, R. E. Graves, and L. Fusek, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 1934 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mach. Vis. Appl. (1)

B. E. Dom, V. H. Brecher, R. Bonner, J. S. Batchelder, and S. Jaffe, Mach. Vis. Appl. 1, 205 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, Opt. Acta 31, 579 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. L. Fusek, L. H. Lin, K. Harding, and S. Gustafson, Opt. Eng. 24, 731 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the defect-enhancement system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency as a function of the incident angle of the reading beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency as a function of the intensity of the reading beam for various intensities of the writing beams.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photomask for liquid-crystal color display: (a) microscopic image, (b) defect-enhanced image.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η=exp-2dα0cos θsin2πdΔnλ cos θ+sinh2dΔα2 cos θ,
Δα=α2-α22IwIs2IR+Iw+Is2,
Δn=n2-n22IwIs2IR+Iw+Is2,
η=exp-2dα0cos θ×d2π2n2-n22+λ2/4α2-α224λ2 cos2 θ×IwIs2IR+Iw+Is22·

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