Abstract

We demonstrate 60-fs pulses with an average output power of 84  mW from a diode-pumped Nd:glass laser mode locked by a low-finesse antiresonant Fabry–Perot saturable absorber (A-FPSA). The mode-locked spectrum spreads over most of the available Nd:glass fluorescence bandwidth. At increased pulse energy fluence or decreased negative group-velocity dispersion, multiple pulsing was observed. We experimentally characterize this behavior, which can be explained by the saturation behavior of the A-FPSA and the limited available gain bandwidth. These considerations are significant for the design of saturable absorbers to achieve stable passive mode locking.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Basu and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 13, 458 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond or nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).
  4. U. Keller, T. H. Chiu, and J. F. Ferguson, Opt. Lett. 18, 1077 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Kopf, F. X. Kärtner, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 20, 1169 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, Opt. Lett. 17, 505 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 58, 347 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Lett. 16, 42 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 31, 287 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Hönninger, G. Zhang, U. Keller, and A. Giesen, Opt. Lett. 20, 2402 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. R. Brovelli, U. Keller, and T. H. Chiu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 311 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 20, 16 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode locking with saturable absorbers,” submitted to J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

1995 (5)

1994 (1)

U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 58, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Lett. 16, 42 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

Asom, M. T.

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond or nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Basu, S.

Boyd, G. D.

Brabec, T.

C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond or nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Brovelli, L. R.

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 31, 287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brovelli, U. Keller, and T. H. Chiu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Chiu, T. H.

Ferguson, J. F.

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond or nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Giesen, A.

Hönninger, C.

C. Hönninger, G. Zhang, U. Keller, and A. Giesen, Opt. Lett. 20, 2402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond or nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Jung, I. D.

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 31, 287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond or nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode locking with saturable absorbers,” submitted to J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Kamp, M.

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 31, 287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

D. Kopf, F. X. Kärtner, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 20, 1169 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 20, 16 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 31, 287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode locking with saturable absorbers,” submitted to J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond or nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Kean, P. N.

Keller, U.

D. Kopf, F. X. Kärtner, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 20, 1169 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 20, 16 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 31, 287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, G. Zhang, U. Keller, and A. Giesen, Opt. Lett. 20, 2402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brovelli, U. Keller, and T. H. Chiu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 58, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, T. H. Chiu, and J. F. Ferguson, Opt. Lett. 18, 1077 (1993).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, Opt. Lett. 17, 505 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond or nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode locking with saturable absorbers,” submitted to J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Kopf, D.

D. Kopf, F. X. Kärtner, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 20, 1169 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 31, 287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond or nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Krausz, F.

C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Moser, M.

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 31, 287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, A. J.

C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Spence, D. E.

Spielmann, C.

C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

D. Kopf, F. X. Kärtner, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 20, 1169 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond or nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Wintner, E.

C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 58, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, Electron. Lett. 31, 287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Other (2)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond or nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode locking with saturable absorbers,” submitted to J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Noncollinear autocorrelation and (b) spectrum of the shortest pulses obtained from a diode-pumped Nd:fluorophosphate laser. The dotted curve in (a) is a fit to an ideal sech2 pulse shape. The dotted curve in (b) shows the fluorescence spectrum of LG-810, indicating that the pulse spectrum spreads over most of the available gain bandwidth.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diode-pumped Nd:glass laser setup. Inset: structure of the low-finesse A-FPSA. ROC, radius of curvature; LT, low temperature grown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the pulse width on the total intracavity pulse energy in the Nd:silicate laser. The data are fitted to 1/Ep (soliton). At an energy of 35  nJ, the pulse breaks up into two intracavity pulses that have longer pulse widths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the pulse width on the total intracavity group-velocity dispersion D in the Nd:silicate laser. The solid lines are fits to a straight line.

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