Abstract

The behavior of the concentration of photoinduced color centers in Ge–SiO<sub>2</sub> optical fibers was compared with that of the index modulation associated with fiber Bragg gratings (FBG’s) written in the same fibers. We find that the fluence dependence of the photoinduced Ge <i>E</i>? center, its thermal annealing behavior, and its reaction with H<sub>2</sub> are similar to that of the index modulation generated in both H<sub>2</sub>-loaded and unloaded Ge–SiO<sub>2</sub> fibers. The much higher photosensitivity of H<sub>2</sub>-loaded Ge–SiO<sub>2</sub> fibers is attributed to the much higher formation efficiency of Ge <i>E</i>? centers, with an additional contribution from GeH. A diamagnetic structure, possibly densification, is also found to contribute to the index modulation of FBG’s.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 18, 935 (1993).
  2. R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).
  3. L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, Appl. Opt. 34, 3436 (1995).
  4. H. Patrick and S. L. Gilbert, Opt. Lett. 18, 1484 (1993).
  5. D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).
  6. T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and M. Saifi, Ceram. Trans. 14, 127 (1990).
  7. T. E. Tsai, C. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).
  8. R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
  9. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
  10. G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 29, 425 (1993).
  11. V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).
  12. K. Awazu, H. Onuki, and K. Muta, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 204–207.
  13. H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and K. Muta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 479 (1993).
  14. T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).
  15. M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).
  16. T. E. Tsai and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 1516, 14 (1992).
  17. E. J. Friebele and D. L. Griscom, in Defects in Glasses, F. L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, and M. J. Weber, eds., Vol. 61 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 319.
  18. B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 195 (1994).
  19. D. M. Krol, R. M. Atkins, and P. J. Lemaire, Proc. SPIE 1516, 38 (1991).
  20. B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).

1995

K. Awazu, H. Onuki, and K. Muta, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 204–207.

L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, Appl. Opt. 34, 3436 (1995).

1994

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).

1993

H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and K. Muta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 479 (1993).

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 18, 935 (1993).

H. Patrick and S. L. Gilbert, Opt. Lett. 18, 1484 (1993).

1992

T. E. Tsai, C. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).

T. E. Tsai and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 1516, 14 (1992).

1991

D. M. Krol, R. M. Atkins, and P. J. Lemaire, Proc. SPIE 1516, 38 (1991).

1990

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and M. Saifi, Ceram. Trans. 14, 127 (1990).

1986

E. J. Friebele and D. L. Griscom, in Defects in Glasses, F. L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, and M. J. Weber, eds., Vol. 61 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 319.

M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).

Ainslie, B. J.

G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 29, 425 (1993).

Anderson, D. Z.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).

Archambault, J. L.

Askins, C.

T. E. Tsai, C. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).

Atkins, R. M.

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).

D. M. Krol, R. M. Atkins, and P. J. Lemaire, Proc. SPIE 1516, 38 (1991).

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).

Awazu, K.

K. Awazu, H. Onuki, and K. Muta, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 204–207.

Bayon, J. F.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).

Bernage, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).

DiGiovanni, D. J.

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).

Dong, L.

Erdogan, T.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).

Friebele, E. J.

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 18, 935 (1993).

T. E. Tsai, C. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and M. Saifi, Ceram. Trans. 14, 127 (1990).

E. J. Friebele and D. L. Griscom, in Defects in Glasses, F. L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, and M. J. Weber, eds., Vol. 61 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 319.

Gilbert, S. L.

Greene, B. I.

B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 195 (1994).

Griscom, D. L.

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 18, 935 (1993).

T. E. Tsai and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 1516, 14 (1992).

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and M. Saifi, Ceram. Trans. 14, 127 (1990).

E. J. Friebele and D. L. Griscom, in Defects in Glasses, F. L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, and M. J. Weber, eds., Vol. 61 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 319.

Guénot, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).

Hosono, H.

H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and K. Muta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 479 (1993).

Inagaki, N.

M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).

Itoh, H.

M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).

Kashyap, R.

G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 29, 425 (1993).

Kawazoe, H.

H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and K. Muta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 479 (1993).

Kosinski, S. G.

B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 195 (1994).

Krol, D. M.

D. M. Krol, R. M. Atkins, and P. J. Lemaire, Proc. SPIE 1516, 38 (1991).

B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 195 (1994).

Lemaire, J.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).

Lemaire, P. J.

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).

D. M. Krol, R. M. Atkins, and P. J. Lemaire, Proc. SPIE 1516, 38 (1991).

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).

B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 195 (1994).

Maxwell, G. D.

G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 29, 425 (1993).

Mizrahi, V.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).

Muta, K.

K. Awazu, H. Onuki, and K. Muta, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 204–207.

H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and K. Muta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 479 (1993).

Nakahara, M.

M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).

Niay, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).

Ohmori, Y.

M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).

Onuki, H.

K. Awazu, H. Onuki, and K. Muta, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 204–207.

Patrick, H.

Payne, D. N.

Poumellec, B.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).

Reed, W. A.

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).

Reekie, L.

Riant, I.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).

Russell, P. St. J.

Saeta, P. N.

B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 195 (1994).

Saifi, M.

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and M. Saifi, Ceram. Trans. 14, 127 (1990).

Sansonetti, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).

Shimizu, M.

M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).

Strasser, T. A.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).

Tsai, T. E.

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 18, 935 (1993).

T. E. Tsai and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 1516, 14 (1992).

T. E. Tsai, C. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and M. Saifi, Ceram. Trans. 14, 127 (1990).

White, A. E.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).

Williams, D. L.

G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 29, 425 (1993).

Appl Phys. Lett.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and K. Muta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 479 (1993).

T. E. Tsai, C. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).

Ceram. Trans.

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and M. Saifi, Ceram. Trans. 14, 127 (1990).

Electron. Lett.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).

G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 29, 425 (1993).

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 195 (1994).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).

Proc. SPIE

D. M. Krol, R. M. Atkins, and P. J. Lemaire, Proc. SPIE 1516, 38 (1991).

T. E. Tsai and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 1516, 14 (1992).

Other

E. J. Friebele and D. L. Griscom, in Defects in Glasses, F. L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, and M. J. Weber, eds., Vol. 61 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 319.

K. Awazu, H. Onuki, and K. Muta, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 204–207.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics