Abstract

The behavior of the concentration of photoinduced color centers in Ge-SiO2 optical fibers was compared with that of the index modulation associated with fiber Bragg gratings (FBG's) written in the same fibers. We find that the fluence dependence of the photoinduced Ge E center, its thermal annealing behavior, and its reaction with H2 are similar to that of the index modulation generated in both H2-loaded and unloaded Ge-SiO2 fibers. The much higher photosensitivity of H2-loaded Ge-SiO2 fibers is attributed to the much higher formation efficiency of Ge E centers, with an additional contribution from GeH. A diamagnetic structure, possibly densification, is also found to contribute to the index modulation of FBG's.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 18, 935 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, Appl. Opt. 34, 3436 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Patrick and S. L. Gilbert, Opt. Lett. 18, 1484 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and M. Saifi, Ceram. Trans. 14, 127 (1990).
  7. T. E. Tsai, C. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 29, 425 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Awazu, H. Onuki, and K. Muta, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 204–207.
  13. H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and K. Muta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 479 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. E. Tsai and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 1516, 14 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. J. Friebele and D. L. Griscom, in Defects in Glasses, F. L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, and M. J. Weber, eds., Vol. 61 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 319.
  18. B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 195 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. M. Krol, R. M. Atkins, and P. J. Lemaire, Proc. SPIE 1516, 38 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (2)

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, Appl. Opt. 34, 3436 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (9)

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 29, 425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and K. Muta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 18, 935 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Patrick and S. L. Gilbert, Opt. Lett. 18, 1484 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

T. E. Tsai, C. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Tsai and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 1516, 14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. M. Krol, R. M. Atkins, and P. J. Lemaire, Proc. SPIE 1516, 38 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and M. Saifi, Ceram. Trans. 14, 127 (1990).

1986 (1)

M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 29, 425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. Z.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J. L.

Askins, C.

T. E. Tsai, C. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Krol, R. M. Atkins, and P. J. Lemaire, Proc. SPIE 1516, 38 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Awazu, K.

K. Awazu, H. Onuki, and K. Muta, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 204–207.

Bayon, J. F.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Erdogan, T.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 18, 935 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Tsai, C. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and M. Saifi, Ceram. Trans. 14, 127 (1990).

E. J. Friebele and D. L. Griscom, in Defects in Glasses, F. L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, and M. J. Weber, eds., Vol. 61 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 319.

Gilbert, S. L.

Greene, B. I.

B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Griscom, D. L.

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 18, 935 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Tsai and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 1516, 14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and M. Saifi, Ceram. Trans. 14, 127 (1990).

E. J. Friebele and D. L. Griscom, in Defects in Glasses, F. L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, and M. J. Weber, eds., Vol. 61 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 319.

Guénot, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and K. Muta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Inagaki, N.

M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, H.

M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 29, 425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, H.

H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and K. Muta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kosinski, S. G.

B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Krol, R. M. Atkins, and P. J. Lemaire, Proc. SPIE 1516, 38 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, J.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Krol, R. M. Atkins, and P. J. Lemaire, Proc. SPIE 1516, 38 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, G. D.

G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 29, 425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Muta, K.

H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and K. Muta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Awazu, H. Onuki, and K. Muta, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 204–207.

Nakahara, M.

M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohmori, Y.

M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Onuki, H.

K. Awazu, H. Onuki, and K. Muta, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 204–207.

Patrick, H.

Payne, D. N.

Poumellec, B.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

Riant, I.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Saeta, P. N.

B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saifi, M.

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and M. Saifi, Ceram. Trans. 14, 127 (1990).

Sansonetti, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, M.

M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T. E.

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 18, 935 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Tsai and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 1516, 14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Tsai, C. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and M. Saifi, Ceram. Trans. 14, 127 (1990).

White, A. E.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. L.

G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 29, 425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl Phys. Lett. (1)

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and J. Lemaire, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, and K. Muta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Tsai, C. Askins, and E. J. Friebele, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 390 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1727 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ceram. Trans. (1)

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and M. Saifi, Ceram. Trans. 14, 127 (1990).

Electron. Lett. (5)

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Maxwell, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, and R. Kashyap, Electron. Lett. 29, 425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. Nakahara, Y. Ohmori, H. Itoh, M. Shimizu, and N. Inagaki, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 127 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

B. I. Greene, D. M. Krol, S. G. Kosinski, P. J. Lemaire, and P. N. Saeta, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 195 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. M. Krol, R. M. Atkins, and P. J. Lemaire, Proc. SPIE 1516, 38 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Tsai and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 1516, 14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. J. Friebele and D. L. Griscom, in Defects in Glasses, F. L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, and M. J. Weber, eds., Vol. 61 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 319.

K. Awazu, H. Onuki, and K. Muta, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 22 of 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 204–207.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Paramagnetic defect-center concentration versus UV photon fluence (0-11J/cm2) in (A) unloaded and (B) H2-loaded Ge-SiO2 fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Isothermal annealing of Δn (calculated from FBG reflectivity) and GeE center concentrations in samples with postexposure H2 loading: (A) Δn versus time and fit to linear relationship between Δn and [GeE]. (B) Δn versus [GeE]. Laser fluences are 100 and 1J/cm2 for the unloaded and H2-loaded fibers, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Isochronal thermal annealing of Δn and GeE center concentration in unloaded fibers without postexposure H2 loading: (A) Δn versus temperature and fit to linear relationship between Δn and [GeE]. (B) Δn versus [GeE]. Laser fluence is 300J/cm2.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δn=kGeE[GeE]+kGeH[GeH]+kX[X],
GeE+1/2H2GeH.
Δn=kGeH([GeE]0+[GeH]0+kX[X]+(kGeE-kGeH)[GeE],
kGeE-kGeH(1.5±0.5)×10-23cm3.
kGeE(6±0.5)×10-23cm3.
kGeH(4.5±1.0)×10-23cm3.

Metrics