Abstract

This is the first report, to our knowledge, of refractive-index grating side writing in 10  mol.  % GeO2-doped fiber by the near-UV light of a cw Ar+ laser (333–364  nm). An induced-index magnitude as large as 1.9×10-4 at 1.7×105W/cm2 UV power density has been achieved. The observed gratings have exhibited the same temperature stability as gratings written by a KrF excimer laser (248  nm).

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. B. Neustruev, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6, 6901 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. M. Dianov and D. S. Starodubov, Opt. Lett. 21, 635 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. M. Dianov and D. S. Starodubov, Proc. SPIE 2777, 60 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, Proc. SPIE 2044, 261 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, and S. A. Vasillev, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol.  22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14, paper SaB3.
  7. E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and S. A. Vasilliev, presented at the 10th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Leuven, Belgium, September 8-11, 1996.
  8. T. Tamir, ed., Integrated Optics, Vol.  7 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Patrick and S. L. Gilbert, Opt. Lett. 18, 1484 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

E. M. Dianov and D. S. Starodubov, Proc. SPIE 2777, 60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

V. B. Neustruev, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6, 6901 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, Proc. SPIE 2044, 261 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Patrick and S. L. Gilbert, Opt. Lett. 18, 1484 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, J. R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R. J.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov and D. S. Starodubov, Opt. Lett. 21, 635 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov and D. S. Starodubov, Proc. SPIE 2777, 60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, and S. A. Vasillev, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol.  22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14, paper SaB3.

E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and S. A. Vasilliev, presented at the 10th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Leuven, Belgium, September 8-11, 1996.

Gilbert, S. L.

Handerek, V. A.

S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, Proc. SPIE 2044, 261 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kanellopoulos, S. E.

S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, Proc. SPIE 2044, 261 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Karpov, V. I.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, and S. A. Vasillev, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol.  22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14, paper SaB3.

Kashyap, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kurkov, A. S.

E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and S. A. Vasilliev, presented at the 10th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Leuven, Belgium, September 8-11, 1996.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, and S. A. Vasillev, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol.  22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14, paper SaB3.

Maxwell, G. D.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Medvedkov, O. I.

E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and S. A. Vasilliev, presented at the 10th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Leuven, Belgium, September 8-11, 1996.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, and S. A. Vasillev, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol.  22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14, paper SaB3.

Neustruev, V. B.

V. B. Neustruev, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6, 6901 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H.

Prokhorov, A. M.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, and S. A. Vasillev, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol.  22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14, paper SaB3.

Protopopov, V. N.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, and S. A. Vasillev, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol.  22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14, paper SaB3.

Rogers, A. J.

S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, Proc. SPIE 2044, 261 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Starodubov, D. S.

E. M. Dianov and D. S. Starodubov, Opt. Lett. 21, 635 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov and D. S. Starodubov, Proc. SPIE 2777, 60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vasillev, S. A.

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, and S. A. Vasillev, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol.  22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14, paper SaB3.

Vasilliev, S. A.

E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and S. A. Vasilliev, presented at the 10th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Leuven, Belgium, September 8-11, 1996.

Williams, D. L.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

V. B. Neustruev, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6, 6901 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (3)

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, J. R. Armitage, R. J. Campbell, and R. Wyatt, Proc. SPIE 2044, 55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov and D. S. Starodubov, Proc. SPIE 2777, 60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, Proc. SPIE 2044, 261 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. M. Dianov, V. I. Karpov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Protopopov, and S. A. Vasillev, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol.  22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14, paper SaB3.

E. M. Dianov, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and S. A. Vasilliev, presented at the 10th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers, Leuven, Belgium, September 8-11, 1996.

T. Tamir, ed., Integrated Optics, Vol.  7 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectrum of a 40-mm long-period cladding-mode-coupled grating written in 10  mol.  % GeO2-doped fiber. The grating period is 200  µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of induced refractive index on near-UV power density.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral efficiency of refractive-index change (circles) in comparison with the spectrum of singlet–triplet absorption of a GODC (curve2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependencies of relative changes of induced index on the temperature at the isochronal annealing of long-period gratings, written by 333–364-nm (curve  1) and 248-nm (curve  2) radiation.

Equations (1)

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S=sin24ΔnILλr

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