Abstract

Diabetics would benefit greatly from a device capable of providing continuous noninvasive monitoring of their blood glucose levels. The optical scattering coefficient of tissue depends on the concentration of glucose in the extracellular fluid. A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the sensitivity of the tissue reduced scattering coefficient in response to step changes in the blood glucose levels of diabetic volunteers. Estimates of the scattering coefficient were based on measurements of the diffuse reflectance on the skin at distances of 1–10  mm from a point source. A correlation was observed between step changes in blood glucose concentration and tissue reduced scattering coefficient in 30 out of 41 subjects measured.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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1996 (2)

1994 (3)

1993 (1)

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, N. Engl. J. Med. 329, 977 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1977 (1)

A. H. Clemes, P. H. Chang, and R. W. Myers, Horm. Metab. Res. (Suppl.) 8, 23 (1977).

Beauvoit, B.

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, and B. Chance, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, E. R.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, J. E. Hayward, B. C. Wilson, and E. R. Beck, Proc. SPIE 2135, 117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Böcker, D.

Chance, B.

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, and B. Chance, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, P. H.

A. H. Clemes, P. H. Chang, and R. W. Myers, Horm. Metab. Res. (Suppl.) 8, 23 (1977).

Clemes, A. H.

A. H. Clemes, P. H. Chang, and R. W. Myers, Horm. Metab. Res. (Suppl.) 8, 23 (1977).

Cope, M.

Essenpreis, M.

Fantini, S.

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, J. E. Hayward, B. C. Wilson, and E. R. Beck, Proc. SPIE 2135, 117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferwerda, H. A.

Foster, T. H.

M. G. Nichols, E. L. Hull, and T. H. Foster, in Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, E. Sevick-Muraca and D. Benaron, eds., Vol. 3 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 50–54.

Franceschini, M.

Gratton, E.

Groenhuis, J.

Hayward, J. E.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, J. E. Hayward, B. C. Wilson, and E. R. Beck, Proc. SPIE 2135, 117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hibst, R.

Hull, E. L.

M. G. Nichols, E. L. Hull, and T. H. Foster, in Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, E. Sevick-Muraca and D. Benaron, eds., Vol. 3 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 50–54.

Kienle, A.

Kimura, M.

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, and B. Chance, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohl, M.

Lilge, L.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, and B. Chance, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, J. S.

Myers, R. W.

A. H. Clemes, P. H. Chang, and R. W. Myers, Horm. Metab. Res. (Suppl.) 8, 23 (1977).

Nichols, M. G.

M. G. Nichols, E. L. Hull, and T. H. Foster, in Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, E. Sevick-Muraca and D. Benaron, eds., Vol. 3 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 50–54.

Patterson, M. S.

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 35, 2304 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, J. E. Hayward, B. C. Wilson, and E. R. Beck, Proc. SPIE 2135, 117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, R.

Ten Bosch, J. J.

Walker, S. A.

Wilson, B.

Wilson, B. C.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, J. E. Hayward, B. C. Wilson, and E. R. Beck, Proc. SPIE 2135, 117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Horm. Metab. Res. (Suppl.) (1)

A. H. Clemes, P. H. Chang, and R. W. Myers, Horm. Metab. Res. (Suppl.) 8, 23 (1977).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, M. Kimura, and B. Chance, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 200 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, N. Engl. J. Med. 329, 977 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

T. J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, J. E. Hayward, B. C. Wilson, and E. R. Beck, Proc. SPIE 2135, 117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. G. Nichols, E. L. Hull, and T. H. Foster, in Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, E. Sevick-Muraca and D. Benaron, eds., Vol. 3 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 50–54.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reduced scattering coefficient at 650  nm (dots) and blood glucose concentration (curve) measured on a diabetic volunteer during a single-step clamping experiment. The left ordinate scale is reversed to emphasize the correlation between the blood glucose concentration and the scattering coefficient.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reduced scattering coefficient at 650  nm (dots) and blood glucose concentration (curve) measured on a diabetic volunteer during a double-step clamping experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reduced scattering coefficient at 650  nm (dots) and blood glucose concentration (curve) measured on a diabetic volunteer during a triple-step clamping experiment.

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