Abstract

Photobleaching of darkened thulium-doped ZBLAN fibers is observed after short exposure to visible light. The bleaching process is characterized by a stretched-exponential function of time with an exponent β independent of both the bleaching intensity and the thulium concentration. The bleaching rate 1/τ is also shown to scale linearly with the bleaching intensity and to have a 1/3-power dependence on the thulium concentration. Incomplete and slow recovery of the color centers is observed in previously bleached fibers, suggesting the presence of at least two types of defect.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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1996 (2)

I. J. Booth, J. L. Archambault, and B. F. Ventrudo, Opt. Lett. 21, 348 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, and B. F. Ventrudo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

1993 (5)

1988 (1)

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig, Electron. Lett. 24, 590 (1988).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

E. J. Friebele and D. C. Tran, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 72, 221 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

R. G. Palmer, D. L. Stein, E. Abrahams, and P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 958 (1984).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

E. M. Dianov, L. S. Kornienko, E. P. Nikitin, A. O. Rybaltovskiǐ, and P. V. Chernov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 636 (1979).
[Crossref]

Abrahams, E.

R. G. Palmer, D. L. Stein, E. Abrahams, and P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 958 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ainslie, B. J.

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig, Electron. Lett. 24, 590 (1988).
[Crossref]

Anderson, P. W.

R. G. Palmer, D. L. Stein, E. Abrahams, and P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 958 (1984).
[Crossref]

Archambault, J. L.

I. J. Booth, J. L. Archambault, and B. F. Ventrudo, Opt. Lett. 21, 348 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Booth, J. L. Archambault, and B. F. Ventrudo, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMD6.

Atkins, G. R.

Barber, P. R.

Booth, I. J.

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, and B. F. Ventrudo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118 (1996).
[Crossref]

I. J. Booth, J. L. Archambault, and B. F. Ventrudo, Opt. Lett. 21, 348 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Booth, J. L. Archambault, and B. F. Ventrudo, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMD6.

Brocklesby, W. S.

Broer, M. M.

Brown, R. S.

Carter, A. L. G.

Carter, S. F.

P. W. France, M. G. Drexhage, J. M. Parker, M. W. Moore, S. F. Carter, and J. V. Wright, Fluoride Glass Optical Fibres (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990), pp. 159–160.

Chandonnet, A.

P. Laperle, A. Chandonnet, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 20, 2484 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Laperle, A. Chandonnet, and R. Vallée, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Wave-guides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMD5.

Chernov, P. V.

E. M. Dianov, L. S. Kornienko, E. P. Nikitin, A. O. Rybaltovskiǐ, and P. V. Chernov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 636 (1979).
[Crossref]

Crahan, K. K.

G. M. Williams, D. A. Dutt, J. A. Ruller, D. L. Griscom, J. M. Jewell, K. K. Crahan, and E. J. Friebele, Proc. SPIE 2044, 322 (1993).
[Crossref]

Craig, S. P.

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig, Electron. Lett. 24, 590 (1988).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, L. S. Kornienko, E. P. Nikitin, A. O. Rybaltovskiǐ, and P. V. Chernov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 636 (1979).
[Crossref]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Drexhage, M. G.

P. W. France, M. G. Drexhage, J. M. Parker, M. W. Moore, S. F. Carter, and J. V. Wright, Fluoride Glass Optical Fibres (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990), pp. 159–160.

Dutt, D. A.

G. M. Williams, D. A. Dutt, J. A. Ruller, D. L. Griscom, J. M. Jewell, K. K. Crahan, and E. J. Friebele, Proc. SPIE 2044, 322 (1993).
[Crossref]

France, P. W.

P. W. France, M. G. Drexhage, J. M. Parker, M. W. Moore, S. F. Carter, and J. V. Wright, Fluoride Glass Optical Fibres (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990), pp. 159–160.

Friebele, E. J.

G. M. Williams, D. A. Dutt, J. A. Ruller, D. L. Griscom, J. M. Jewell, K. K. Crahan, and E. J. Friebele, Proc. SPIE 2044, 322 (1993).
[Crossref]

E. J. Friebele and D. C. Tran, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 72, 221 (1985).
[Crossref]

E. J. Friebele and M. E. Gingerich, Appl. Opt. 20, 3448 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gingerich, M. E.

Griscom, D. L.

G. M. Williams, D. A. Dutt, J. A. Ruller, D. L. Griscom, J. M. Jewell, K. K. Crahan, and E. J. Friebele, Proc. SPIE 2044, 322 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

Jewell, J. M.

G. M. Williams, D. A. Dutt, J. A. Ruller, D. L. Griscom, J. M. Jewell, K. K. Crahan, and E. J. Friebele, Proc. SPIE 2044, 322 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kornienko, L. S.

E. M. Dianov, L. S. Kornienko, E. P. Nikitin, A. O. Rybaltovskiǐ, and P. V. Chernov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 636 (1979).
[Crossref]

Krol, D. M.

Laperle, P.

P. Laperle, A. Chandonnet, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 20, 2484 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Laperle, A. Chandonnet, and R. Vallée, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Wave-guides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMD5.

Lincoln, J. R.

Mackechnie, C. J.

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, and B. F. Ventrudo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mallinson, S. R.

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig, Electron. Lett. 24, 590 (1988).
[Crossref]

Mathieu, A.

Millar, C. A.

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig, Electron. Lett. 24, 590 (1988).
[Crossref]

Moore, M. W.

P. W. France, M. G. Drexhage, J. M. Parker, M. W. Moore, S. F. Carter, and J. V. Wright, Fluoride Glass Optical Fibres (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990), pp. 159–160.

Neveux, D.

Nikitin, E. P.

E. M. Dianov, L. S. Kornienko, E. P. Nikitin, A. O. Rybaltovskiǐ, and P. V. Chernov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 636 (1979).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R. G.

R. G. Palmer, D. L. Stein, E. Abrahams, and P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 958 (1984).
[Crossref]

Parker, J. M.

P. W. France, M. G. Drexhage, J. M. Parker, M. W. Moore, S. F. Carter, and J. V. Wright, Fluoride Glass Optical Fibres (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990), pp. 159–160.

Paschotta, R.

Ruller, J. A.

G. M. Williams, D. A. Dutt, J. A. Ruller, D. L. Griscom, J. M. Jewell, K. K. Crahan, and E. J. Friebele, Proc. SPIE 2044, 322 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rybaltovskii, A. O.

E. M. Dianov, L. S. Kornienko, E. P. Nikitin, A. O. Rybaltovskiǐ, and P. V. Chernov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 636 (1979).
[Crossref]

Stein, D. L.

R. G. Palmer, D. L. Stein, E. Abrahams, and P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 958 (1984).
[Crossref]

Tran, D. C.

E. J. Friebele and D. C. Tran, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 72, 221 (1985).
[Crossref]

Tropper, A. C.

Vallée, R.

P. Laperle, A. Chandonnet, and R. Vallée, Opt. Lett. 20, 2484 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Laperle, A. Chandonnet, and R. Vallée, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Wave-guides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMD5.

Ventrudo, B. F.

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, and B. F. Ventrudo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118 (1996).
[Crossref]

I. J. Booth, J. L. Archambault, and B. F. Ventrudo, Opt. Lett. 21, 348 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Booth, J. L. Archambault, and B. F. Ventrudo, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMD6.

Williams, G. M.

G. M. Williams, D. A. Dutt, J. A. Ruller, D. L. Griscom, J. M. Jewell, K. K. Crahan, and E. J. Friebele, Proc. SPIE 2044, 322 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wright, J. V.

P. W. France, M. G. Drexhage, J. M. Parker, M. W. Moore, S. F. Carter, and J. V. Wright, Fluoride Glass Optical Fibres (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990), pp. 159–160.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig, Electron. Lett. 24, 590 (1988).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, and B. F. Ventrudo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

E. J. Friebele and D. C. Tran, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 72, 221 (1985).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. G. Palmer, D. L. Stein, E. Abrahams, and P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 958 (1984).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. M. Broer, Proc. SPIE 2044, 316 (1993).
[Crossref]

G. M. Williams, D. A. Dutt, J. A. Ruller, D. L. Griscom, J. M. Jewell, K. K. Crahan, and E. J. Friebele, Proc. SPIE 2044, 322 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. M. Dianov, L. S. Kornienko, E. P. Nikitin, A. O. Rybaltovskiǐ, and P. V. Chernov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 636 (1979).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

P. W. France, M. G. Drexhage, J. M. Parker, M. W. Moore, S. F. Carter, and J. V. Wright, Fluoride Glass Optical Fibres (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990), pp. 159–160.

P. Laperle, A. Chandonnet, and R. Vallée, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Wave-guides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMD5.

I. J. Booth, J. L. Archambault, and B. F. Ventrudo, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMD6.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for bleaching measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized transmission at 514.5  nm () and 860  nm () for Tm:ZBLAN fiber B as a function of exposure time for a pump intensity of 0.5 MW/cm2 at 488  nm. (a) Pump on, (b) pump off. Inset: change in transmission of fiber B as a function of wavelength (a) after a 5-min exposure to 3.3 MW/cm2 at 1.112 µm and (b) 24  h after a 10-min exposure to 1.4 MW/cm2 at 488  nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of the stretched-exponential fit. (a) Exponent β as a function of the intensity at 488  nm. (b) Inverse time constant 1/τ as a function of the intensity at 488  nm. (c) Inverse time constant times inverse intensity 1/(τI) as a function of the thulium concentration.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters of the ZBLAN Fiber Samples

Equations (2)

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T(t)=1-α exp[-(t/τ)β],
1/τ=kIC1/m,

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