Abstract

Large two-photon absorptivities are reported for symmetrical bis-donor stilbene derivatives with dialkylamino or diphenylamino groups. These molecules exhibit strong optical limiting of nanosecond pulses over a broad spectral range in the visible. Relative to bis(di-n-butylamino)stilbene, bis(diphenylamino)stilbene exhibits a 90-nm red shift of its optical limiting band but only a minimal shift of 13 nm of its lowest one-photon electronic absorption band. Mixtures of these compounds offer an unprecedented combination of broad optical limiting bandwidth and high linear transparency.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. W. Perry, in Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers, H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), p. 813.
  2. J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 1041 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, Opt. Lett. 20, 435 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, and B. Reinhardt, Opt. Commun. 117, 133 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, London, 1973).
  8. R. J. M. Anderson, G. R. Holtom, and W. M. McClain, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 4310 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C.-K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, and P. N. Prasad, Opt. Commun. 124, 33 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Xu and W. W. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 481 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Zhao and P. Palffy-Muhoray, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 673 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Li, G. Hu, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. A. Lee, and H. J. Yuan, Proc. SPIE 1692, 107 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. J. McEwan and R. C. Hollins, J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mat. 4, 245 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C.-K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, and P. N. Prasad, Opt. Commun. 124, 33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 1041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu and W. W. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 481 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, Opt. Lett. 20, 435 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. McEwan and R. C. Hollins, J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mat. 4, 245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, and B. Reinhardt, Opt. Commun. 117, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhao and P. Palffy-Muhoray, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 673 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. Li, G. Hu, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. A. Lee, and H. J. Yuan, Proc. SPIE 1692, 107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. J. M. Anderson, G. R. Holtom, and W. M. McClain, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 4310 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. J. M.

R. J. M. Anderson, G. R. Holtom, and W. M. McClain, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 4310 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bhatt, J. C.

Bhawalkar, J. D.

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C.-K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, and P. N. Prasad, Opt. Commun. 124, 33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 1041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dillard, A. G.

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, Opt. Lett. 20, 435 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gvishi, R.

G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, and B. Reinhardt, Opt. Commun. 117, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646 (1994).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C.-K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, and P. N. Prasad, Opt. Commun. 124, 33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 1041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, Opt. Lett. 20, 435 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, and B. Reinhardt, Opt. Commun. 117, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hollins, R. C.

K. J. McEwan and R. C. Hollins, J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mat. 4, 245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holtom, G. R.

R. J. M. Anderson, G. R. Holtom, and W. M. McClain, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 4310 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hu, G.

L. Li, G. Hu, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. A. Lee, and H. J. Yuan, Proc. SPIE 1692, 107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. A.

L. Li, G. Hu, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. A. Lee, and H. J. Yuan, Proc. SPIE 1692, 107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, G. Hu, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. A. Lee, and H. J. Yuan, Proc. SPIE 1692, 107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Loudon, R.

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, London, 1973).

McClain, W. M.

R. J. M. Anderson, G. R. Holtom, and W. M. McClain, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 4310 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McEwan, K. J.

K. J. McEwan and R. C. Hollins, J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mat. 4, 245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

W. Zhao and P. Palffy-Muhoray, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 673 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, G. Hu, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. A. Lee, and H. J. Yuan, Proc. SPIE 1692, 107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Park, C.-K.

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C.-K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, and P. N. Prasad, Opt. Commun. 124, 33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

J. W. Perry, in Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers, H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), p. 813.

Prasad, P. N.

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C.-K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, and P. N. Prasad, Opt. Commun. 124, 33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 1041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, Opt. Lett. 20, 435 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, and B. Reinhardt, Opt. Commun. 117, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B.

G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, and B. Reinhardt, Opt. Commun. 117, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B. A.

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, Opt. Lett. 20, 435 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roderer, P.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ruland, G.

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C.-K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, and P. N. Prasad, Opt. Commun. 124, 33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wamsley, C.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

Xu, C.

Xu, G. C.

Yuan, H. J.

L. Li, G. Hu, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. A. Lee, and H. J. Yuan, Proc. SPIE 1692, 107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C. F.

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C.-K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, and P. N. Prasad, Opt. Commun. 124, 33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao and P. Palffy-Muhoray, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 673 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhao and P. Palffy-Muhoray, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 673 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. J. M. Anderson, G. R. Holtom, and W. M. McClain, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 4310 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mat. (1)

K. J. McEwan and R. C. Hollins, J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mat. 4, 245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C.-K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, and P. N. Prasad, Opt. Commun. 124, 33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, and B. Reinhardt, Opt. Commun. 117, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Li, G. Hu, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. A. Lee, and H. J. Yuan, Proc. SPIE 1692, 107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 1041 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. W. Perry, in Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers, H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), p. 813.

R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, London, 1973).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

UV–visible absorption spectra in toluene and molecular structures of BDBAS and BDPAS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity-dependent transmission of BDBAS (squares) at 610  nm and 4,4-bis(di-n-butyloxy)stilbene (circles) at 590  nm in acetone at 0.01 M with 5-ns pulses. For BDBAS at 610  nm, δeff=12000×10-50 cm4 s/photon.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical limiting response of BDBAS in acetone solution at a concentration of 0.14 M for 600-nm, 5-ns laser pulses and an f/5 optical system. The solid line corresponds to the linear transmission of the solution, which was 0.95.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrum of effective two-photon absorptivity for BDBAS in acetone (squares) and BDPAS in toluene (circles), both at 0.01-M concentrations. Error bars indicate the precision of the measurements. The linear transmission for a toluene solution containing a mixture of both compounds (at 0.1-M concentration) is shown as the solid curve without points.

Equations (2)

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1/T=1+βg2 I0L,
δ=1000hνβNAC,

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