Abstract

The gain and noise figure can be improved by periodic bending of an erbium-doped fiber. Bending of 5.4  m at the beginning of an erbium-doped fiber results in a reduction of noise figure, a gain increment, and a reduction of forward amplified spontaneous emission of 5.1, 3.6, and 1.5  dB for a 1533-nm small signal; 4.0, 1.9, and 2.1  dB for a 1550-nm small signal; and 2.7, 0.9, and 1.8  dB for a 1560-nm small signal -40 dBm, respectively. In addition, the periodic bending can operate an erbium-doped fiber amplifier at quantum-limited noise and enables its operation to be more stable.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. P. Delavaux and J. A. Nagel, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 703 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Bjarklev, Optical Fiber Amplifiers: Design and System Applications (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1993).
  3. O. Lumholt, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 568 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1344 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Bjarklev, O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, K. Rottwitt, S. D. Petersen, and C. C. Larsen, Electron. Lett. 28, 34 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. H. Liang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2075 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. A. Gambling, H. Matsunura, and C. M. Ragdale, Electron. Lett. 14, 130 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Bonnedal, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1193 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. M. Baney, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper WA1.
  10. J. Aspell, J. F. Federici, B. M. Nyman, D. L. Wilson, and D. S. Shenk, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 5 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper THA4.
  11. E.-G. Neumann, Single-Mode Fiber (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (Wiley, New York, 1994).
  13. B. Pedersen, W. J. Miniscalco, and S. A. Zemon, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1041 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1344 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (2)

J. M. P. Delavaux and J. A. Nagel, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 703 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Liang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2075 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

D. Bonnedal, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

A. Bjarklev, O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, K. Rottwitt, S. D. Petersen, and C. C. Larsen, Electron. Lett. 28, 34 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O. Lumholt, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 568 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Pedersen, W. J. Miniscalco, and S. A. Zemon, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

W. A. Gambling, H. Matsunura, and C. M. Ragdale, Electron. Lett. 14, 130 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Aspell, J.

J. Aspell, J. F. Federici, B. M. Nyman, D. L. Wilson, and D. S. Shenk, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 5 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper THA4.

Baney, D. M.

D. M. Baney, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper WA1.

Bjarklev, A.

O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Lumholt, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 568 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev, O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, K. Rottwitt, S. D. Petersen, and C. C. Larsen, Electron. Lett. 28, 34 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev, Optical Fiber Amplifiers: Design and System Applications (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1993).

Bonnedal, D.

D. Bonnedal, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Delavaux, J. M. P.

J. M. P. Delavaux and J. A. Nagel, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 703 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Desurvire, E.

C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Federici, J. F.

J. Aspell, J. F. Federici, B. M. Nyman, D. L. Wilson, and D. S. Shenk, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 5 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper THA4.

Gambling, W. A.

W. A. Gambling, H. Matsunura, and C. M. Ragdale, Electron. Lett. 14, 130 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Giles, C. R.

C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, C. C.

A. Bjarklev, O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, K. Rottwitt, S. D. Petersen, and C. C. Larsen, Electron. Lett. 28, 34 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liang, A. H.

A. H. Liang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2075 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lumholt, O.

O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Lumholt, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 568 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev, O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, K. Rottwitt, S. D. Petersen, and C. C. Larsen, Electron. Lett. 28, 34 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matsunura, H.

W. A. Gambling, H. Matsunura, and C. M. Ragdale, Electron. Lett. 14, 130 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

B. Pedersen, W. J. Miniscalco, and S. A. Zemon, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, J. A.

J. M. P. Delavaux and J. A. Nagel, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 703 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, E.-G.

E.-G. Neumann, Single-Mode Fiber (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
[CrossRef]

Nyman, B. M.

J. Aspell, J. F. Federici, B. M. Nyman, D. L. Wilson, and D. S. Shenk, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 5 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper THA4.

Pedersen, B.

B. Pedersen, W. J. Miniscalco, and S. A. Zemon, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, S. D.

O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev, O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, K. Rottwitt, S. D. Petersen, and C. C. Larsen, Electron. Lett. 28, 34 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O. Lumholt, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 568 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Povlsen, J. H.

O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Lumholt, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 568 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev, O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, K. Rottwitt, S. D. Petersen, and C. C. Larsen, Electron. Lett. 28, 34 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ragdale, C. M.

W. A. Gambling, H. Matsunura, and C. M. Ragdale, Electron. Lett. 14, 130 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, T.

O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev, O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, K. Rottwitt, S. D. Petersen, and C. C. Larsen, Electron. Lett. 28, 34 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O. Lumholt, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 568 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rottwitt, K.

O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Lumholt, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 568 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev, O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, K. Rottwitt, S. D. Petersen, and C. C. Larsen, Electron. Lett. 28, 34 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schusler, K.

O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Lumholt, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 568 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shenk, D. S.

J. Aspell, J. F. Federici, B. M. Nyman, D. L. Wilson, and D. S. Shenk, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 5 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper THA4.

Wilson, D. L.

J. Aspell, J. F. Federici, B. M. Nyman, D. L. Wilson, and D. S. Shenk, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 5 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper THA4.

Zemon, S. A.

B. Pedersen, W. J. Miniscalco, and S. A. Zemon, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

W. A. Gambling, H. Matsunura, and C. M. Ragdale, Electron. Lett. 14, 130 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev, O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, K. Rottwitt, S. D. Petersen, and C. C. Larsen, Electron. Lett. 28, 34 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. H. Liang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2075 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

D. Bonnedal, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Lumholt, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, J. H. Povlsen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 568 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

O. Lumholt, J. H. Povlsen, K. Schusler, A. Bjarklev, S. D. Petersen, T. Rasmussen, and K. Rottwitt, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. P. Delavaux and J. A. Nagel, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 703 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Pedersen, W. J. Miniscalco, and S. A. Zemon, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

A. Bjarklev, Optical Fiber Amplifiers: Design and System Applications (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1993).

D. M. Baney, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper WA1.

J. Aspell, J. F. Federici, B. M. Nyman, D. L. Wilson, and D. S. Shenk, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 5 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper THA4.

E.-G. Neumann, Single-Mode Fiber (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (Wiley, New York, 1994).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup to measure small-signal gain, NF, and forward ASE power of a periodically bent EDFA. Att., attenuator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of (a) gain and noise (b) forward ASE power on the pump power for a 1533-nm small signal -40 dBm before (S-EDFA) and after (PB-EDFA) periodic bending. Other abbreviations here and in Figs.  3 and 4 are defined in text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of (a) gain and NF and (b) forward ASE power on the pump power for a 1550-nm small signal -40 dBm before (S-EDFA) and after (PB-EDFA) periodic bending.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of (a) gain and NF and (b) forward ASE power on the pump power for a 1560-nm small signal -40 dBm before (S-EDFA) and after (PB-EDFA) period bending.

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