Abstract

The absorption spectra of clustered and isolated ions in erbium-doped germanosilicate fibers have been experimentally studied. The ground-state absorption spectra broaden as the degree of erbium-ion clustering increases, indicating that the absorption spectrum of clustered ions is significantly different from that of the homogeneous ions. This fact is confirmed by comparison of the broadened absorption spectra with the fiber's unbleachable loss spectrum, a direct measurement of the clustered ions. This is the first experimental evidence to the authors' knowledge that indicates different absorption cross sections for the two species of ions in germanosilicate glass, an assumption that is used in the theoretical description of self-pulsing in erbium-doped fiber lasers but is in direct contradiction to the pair-induced quenching model widely used to characterize erbium-doped fiber amplifiers.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, and D. J. Digiovanni, Opt. Lett. 28, 2014 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, and H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 19, 347 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Mylinski, D. Nguyen, and J. Chrostowski, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 112 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. K. Davis, M. J. F. Digonnet, and R. H. Pantell, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 120 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, and D. B. Ostrowsky, Opt. Lett. 20, 2487 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Sanchez, P. Le Boudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephen, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Colin, E. Contesse, P. L. Boudec, G. Stephen, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Lett. 21, 1987 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers IV, M. J. Digonnet and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE1789, 50 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. W. Bennett, F. Davis, P. A. Jakobson, N. Jolley, R. Keys, M. A. Newhouse, S. Sheih, and M. J. Yadlowsky, presented at Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA '97), Victoria, Canada, July 21–23, 1997.

1997

P. Mylinski, D. Nguyen, and J. Chrostowski, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

M. K. Davis, M. J. F. Digonnet, and R. H. Pantell, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, and D. B. Ostrowsky, Opt. Lett. 20, 2487 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

F. Sanchez, P. Le Boudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephen, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, and D. J. Digiovanni, Opt. Lett. 28, 2014 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J.-F.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, K. W.

K. W. Bennett, F. Davis, P. A. Jakobson, N. Jolley, R. Keys, M. A. Newhouse, S. Sheih, and M. J. Yadlowsky, presented at Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA '97), Victoria, Canada, July 21–23, 1997.

Boudec, P. L.

Chrostowski, J.

P. Mylinski, D. Nguyen, and J. Chrostowski, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Colin, S.

Contesse, E.

Davis, F.

K. W. Bennett, F. Davis, P. A. Jakobson, N. Jolley, R. Keys, M. A. Newhouse, S. Sheih, and M. J. Yadlowsky, presented at Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA '97), Victoria, Canada, July 21–23, 1997.

Davis, M. K.

M. K. Davis, M. J. F. Digonnet, and R. H. Pantell, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Delevaque, E.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Digiovanni, D. J.

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, and D. J. Digiovanni, Opt. Lett. 28, 2014 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

M. K. Davis, M. J. F. Digonnet, and R. H. Pantell, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, and H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 19, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, and D. J. Digiovanni, Opt. Lett. 28, 2014 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

Francois, P. L.

F. Sanchez, P. Le Boudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephen, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georges, T.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jakobson, P. A.

K. W. Bennett, F. Davis, P. A. Jakobson, N. Jolley, R. Keys, M. A. Newhouse, S. Sheih, and M. J. Yadlowsky, presented at Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA '97), Victoria, Canada, July 21–23, 1997.

Jolley, N.

K. W. Bennett, F. Davis, P. A. Jakobson, N. Jolley, R. Keys, M. A. Newhouse, S. Sheih, and M. J. Yadlowsky, presented at Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA '97), Victoria, Canada, July 21–23, 1997.

Keys, R.

K. W. Bennett, F. Davis, P. A. Jakobson, N. Jolley, R. Keys, M. A. Newhouse, S. Sheih, and M. J. Yadlowsky, presented at Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA '97), Victoria, Canada, July 21–23, 1997.

Lamouler, P.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Le Boudec, P.

F. Sanchez, P. Le Boudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephen, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maurice, E.

Miniscalco, W. J.

S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers IV, M. J. Digonnet and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE1789, 50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Monnom, G.

Mylinski, P.

P. Mylinski, D. Nguyen, and J. Chrostowski, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Newhouse, M. A.

K. W. Bennett, F. Davis, P. A. Jakobson, N. Jolley, R. Keys, M. A. Newhouse, S. Sheih, and M. J. Yadlowsky, presented at Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA '97), Victoria, Canada, July 21–23, 1997.

Nguyen, D.

P. Mylinski, D. Nguyen, and J. Chrostowski, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

Pantell, R. H.

M. K. Davis, M. J. F. Digonnet, and R. H. Pantell, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers IV, M. J. Digonnet and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE1789, 50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Quimby, S.

S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, F.

S. Colin, E. Contesse, P. L. Boudec, G. Stephen, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Lett. 21, 1987 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Sanchez, P. Le Boudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephen, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, H. J.

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, and H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 19, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, and D. J. Digiovanni, Opt. Lett. 28, 2014 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sheih, S.

K. W. Bennett, F. Davis, P. A. Jakobson, N. Jolley, R. Keys, M. A. Newhouse, S. Sheih, and M. J. Yadlowsky, presented at Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA '97), Victoria, Canada, July 21–23, 1997.

Stephen, G.

S. Colin, E. Contesse, P. L. Boudec, G. Stephen, and F. Sanchez, Opt. Lett. 21, 1987 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Sanchez, P. Le Boudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephen, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, B.

S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers IV, M. J. Digonnet and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE1789, 50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wagener, J. L.

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, and H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 19, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, and D. J. Digiovanni, Opt. Lett. 28, 2014 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, P. F.

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, and H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 19, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, and D. J. Digiovanni, Opt. Lett. 28, 2014 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yadlowsky, M. J.

K. W. Bennett, F. Davis, P. A. Jakobson, N. Jolley, R. Keys, M. A. Newhouse, S. Sheih, and M. J. Yadlowsky, presented at Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA '97), Victoria, Canada, July 21–23, 1997.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

P. Mylinski, D. Nguyen, and J. Chrostowski, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Davis, M. J. F. Digonnet, and R. H. Pantell, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

F. Sanchez, P. Le Boudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephen, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers IV, M. J. Digonnet and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE1789, 50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Bennett, F. Davis, P. A. Jakobson, N. Jolley, R. Keys, M. A. Newhouse, S. Sheih, and M. J. Yadlowsky, presented at Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA '97), Victoria, Canada, July 21–23, 1997.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Small-signal 980-nm absorption spectra of fibers 1–4 measured at 77  K. (b) Small-signal 1550-nm absorption spectra of fibers 1, 2, and 4 measured at room temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of small-signal (solid curve) and large-signal (filled circles) absorption spectra for fiber  3. The large-signal spectrum has been normalized. All data were taken at room temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Small-signal absorption spectrum of highly clustered fiber  4 (solid curve) with large-signal absorption spectra for fibers  2 (open squares) and 3 (filled circles). All data were taken at room temperature.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Absorption Characteristics of Erbium-Doped Germanosilicate Fibers

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