Abstract

We report the observation of steady-state photorefractive vortex-screening solitons. As a singly charged circular vortex nested on a broad beam propagates through a biased strontium barium niobate crystal, it self-traps in both transverse dimensions despite the inherent anisotropy of the photorefractive nonlinearity. When the vortex beam is a doughnut-shaped narrow beam, it breaks up into two elongated slices (with a self-defocusing nonlinearity) or into two focused filaments (with a self-focusing nonlinearity). We demonstrate the optical guidance of a probe beam in a circular waveguide induced by the self-trapped vortex.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. W. Snyder, L. Poladian, and D. J. Mitchell, Opt. Lett. 17, 789 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. A. Swartzlander and C. T. Law, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2503 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. Luther-Davies, R. Powles, and V. Tikhonenko, Opt. Lett. 19, 1816 (1994); J. Christou, V. Tikhonenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 21, 1649 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, and A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, and P. D. Maker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2948 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Steady-state self-focusing in biased photorefractive media was first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Photorefractive screening solitons were first observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996); M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Krolikowski and S. Holmstrom, Opt. Lett. 22, 369 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, and A. A. Zozulya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4544 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, M. Segev, M. Garrett, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 629 (1996); Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 21, 716 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. V. Tikhonenko, J. Christou, and B. Luther-Davies, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2046 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, and P. D. Maker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2948 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Krolikowski and S. Holmstrom, Opt. Lett. 22, 369 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (3)

V. Tikhonenko, J. Christou, and B. Luther-Davies, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2046 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photorefractive screening solitons were first observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996); M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (4)

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steady-state self-focusing in biased photorefractive media was first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Luther-Davies, R. Powles, and V. Tikhonenko, Opt. Lett. 19, 1816 (1994); J. Christou, V. Tikhonenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, Opt. Lett. 21, 1649 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

A. W. Snyder, L. Poladian, and D. J. Mitchell, Opt. Lett. 17, 789 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Swartzlander and C. T. Law, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2503 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, and A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, D. R.

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, and A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashaw, M.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Christou, J.

Crosignani, B.

Photorefractive screening solitons were first observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996); M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiPorto, P.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photorefractive screening solitons were first observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996); M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garrett, M.

Holmstrom, S.

Iturbe-Castillo, M.

Steady-state self-focusing in biased photorefractive media was first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, A. E.

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, and A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krolikowski, W.

Law, C. T.

G. A. Swartzlander and C. T. Law, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2503 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luther-Davies, B.

Maker, P. D.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, and P. D. Maker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2948 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mamaev, A. V.

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, and A. A. Zozulya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4544 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquez-Aguilar, P.

Steady-state self-focusing in biased photorefractive media was first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, D. J.

Mitchell, M.

Morin, M.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, R. E.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, and P. D. Maker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2948 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poladian, L.

Powles, R.

Regan, J. J.

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, and A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saffman, M.

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, and A. A. Zozulya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4544 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salamo, G.

Photorefractive screening solitons were first observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996); M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sánchez-Mondragón, J.

Steady-state self-focusing in biased photorefractive media was first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, and P. D. Maker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2948 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, M. Segev, M. Garrett, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 629 (1996); Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 21, 716 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photorefractive screening solitons were first observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996); M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, E.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M.

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, M. Segev, M. Garrett, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 629 (1996); Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 21, 716 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photorefractive screening solitons were first observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996); M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, A. W.

Stepanov, S.

Steady-state self-focusing in biased photorefractive media was first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, G. A.

G. A. Swartzlander and C. T. Law, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2503 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, and A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tikhonenko, V.

Valley, G. C.

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, M. Segev, M. Garrett, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 629 (1996); Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 21, 716 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photorefractive screening solitons were first observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996); M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vysloukh, V.

Steady-state self-focusing in biased photorefractive media was first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. W.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, and P. D. Maker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2948 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, H.

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, and A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zozulya, A. A.

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, and A. A. Zozulya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4544 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Steady-state self-focusing in biased photorefractive media was first observed by M. Iturbe-Castillo, P. Marquez-Aguilar, J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Photorefractive screening solitons were first observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996); M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Swartzlander and C. T. Law, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2503 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Andersen, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, and A. E. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, and P. D. Maker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2948 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, and A. A. Zozulya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4544 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Propagation of a vortex nested upon an infinite beam through an 11.7-mm long SBN crystal: (a) input, (b) output at V=0, (c) output at V=-450 V.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Propagation of a dark cross formed from an amplitude mask: (a) input, (b) output at V=0, (c) output at V=-200 V.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Propagation of a vortex nested upon a finite beam: (a) input, (b) output at V=0, (c) output at V=-750 V, (d) output at V=+750 V.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Waveguiding of a probe beam by a vortex-screening soliton: (a) input, (b) diffraction output after 5  mm of propagation, (c) output of the vortex soliton and the guided probe beam.

Metrics