Abstract

We report laser operation in planar and linear Nd:YLF waveguide structures grown by liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE). We could reduce the relatively high threshold of 115-mW incident pump power observed for the planar waveguide to 8  mW in a ridge-type structure that we obtained by mechanical polishing and subsequent growth of a cladding layer. Substantial improvements seem possible with reduction of the losses caused by imperfect end-face reflection and scattering, as well as by use of techniques capable of producing smaller structures than the 40µm-wide triangular ridge cross section that was obtained with polishing. Since the LPE technique is applicable to other activator ions as well, it might offer a route to development of low-threshold upconversion lasers.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Chartier, B. Ferrand, D. Pelenc, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, Opt. Lett. 17, 810 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 27, 2375 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. W. France, ed., Optical Fibre Lasers and Amplifiers (Blackie, London, 1991).
  4. R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. A. McFarlane, M. Liu, and D. Yap, J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 82 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. P. Norton, J. D. Budai, B. C. Chakoumakos, D. B. Geohegan, and A. Puretzky, in Advanced Laser Processing of Materials—Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 397 of Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), p. 259.
  9. P. Rogin and J. Hulliger, J. Cryst. Growth 172, 200 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. Rogin and J. Hulliger, Proc. SPIE 2986, 39 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. Douysset-Bloch, B. Ferrand, M. Couchaud, L. Fulbert, M. F. Joubert, G. Chadeyron, and B. Jacquier, “Growth by liquid phase epitaxy and characterization of LiYF4:Nd layers,” J. Alloys Compounds (to be published).
  12. F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383 (1994).
    [Crossref]

1997 (2)

P. Rogin and J. Hulliger, J. Cryst. Growth 172, 200 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. Rogin and J. Hulliger, Proc. SPIE 2986, 39 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

R. A. McFarlane, M. Liu, and D. Yap, J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 82 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

1991 (3)

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 27, 2375 (1991).
[Crossref]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bennett, K. W.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[Crossref]

Brierley, M. C.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
[Crossref]

Budai, J. D.

D. P. Norton, J. D. Budai, B. C. Chakoumakos, D. B. Geohegan, and A. Puretzky, in Advanced Laser Processing of Materials—Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 397 of Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), p. 259.

Cannon, R. S.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[Crossref]

Carter, S. F.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chadeyron, G.

L. Douysset-Bloch, B. Ferrand, M. Couchaud, L. Fulbert, M. F. Joubert, G. Chadeyron, and B. Jacquier, “Growth by liquid phase epitaxy and characterization of LiYF4:Nd layers,” J. Alloys Compounds (to be published).

Chai, B. H. T.

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chakoumakos, B. C.

D. P. Norton, J. D. Budai, B. C. Chakoumakos, D. B. Geohegan, and A. Puretzky, in Advanced Laser Processing of Materials—Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 397 of Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), p. 259.

Chandler, P. J.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 27, 2375 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chartier, I.

Couchaud, M.

L. Douysset-Bloch, B. Ferrand, M. Couchaud, L. Fulbert, M. F. Joubert, G. Chadeyron, and B. Jacquier, “Growth by liquid phase epitaxy and characterization of LiYF4:Nd layers,” J. Alloys Compounds (to be published).

Danger, T.

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383 (1994).
[Crossref]

Davey, S. T.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[Crossref]

Douysset-Bloch, L.

L. Douysset-Bloch, B. Ferrand, M. Couchaud, L. Fulbert, M. F. Joubert, G. Chadeyron, and B. Jacquier, “Growth by liquid phase epitaxy and characterization of LiYF4:Nd layers,” J. Alloys Compounds (to be published).

Ferrand, B.

I. Chartier, B. Ferrand, D. Pelenc, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, Opt. Lett. 17, 810 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Douysset-Bloch, B. Ferrand, M. Couchaud, L. Fulbert, M. F. Joubert, G. Chadeyron, and B. Jacquier, “Growth by liquid phase epitaxy and characterization of LiYF4:Nd layers,” J. Alloys Compounds (to be published).

Field, S. J.

I. Chartier, B. Ferrand, D. Pelenc, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, Opt. Lett. 17, 810 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 27, 2375 (1991).
[Crossref]

Fulbert, L.

L. Douysset-Bloch, B. Ferrand, M. Couchaud, L. Fulbert, M. F. Joubert, G. Chadeyron, and B. Jacquier, “Growth by liquid phase epitaxy and characterization of LiYF4:Nd layers,” J. Alloys Compounds (to be published).

Geohegan, D. B.

D. P. Norton, J. D. Budai, B. C. Chakoumakos, D. B. Geohegan, and A. Puretzky, in Advanced Laser Processing of Materials—Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 397 of Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), p. 259.

Grubb, S. G.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

I. Chartier, B. Ferrand, D. Pelenc, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, Opt. Lett. 17, 810 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 27, 2375 (1991).
[Crossref]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[Crossref]

Heine, F.

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383 (1994).
[Crossref]

Heumann, E.

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383 (1994).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hulliger, J.

P. Rogin and J. Hulliger, Proc. SPIE 2986, 39 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. Rogin and J. Hulliger, J. Cryst. Growth 172, 200 (1997).
[Crossref]

Humer, W. F.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[Crossref]

Jacquier, B.

L. Douysset-Bloch, B. Ferrand, M. Couchaud, L. Fulbert, M. F. Joubert, G. Chadeyron, and B. Jacquier, “Growth by liquid phase epitaxy and characterization of LiYF4:Nd layers,” J. Alloys Compounds (to be published).

Joubert, M. F.

L. Douysset-Bloch, B. Ferrand, M. Couchaud, L. Fulbert, M. F. Joubert, G. Chadeyron, and B. Jacquier, “Growth by liquid phase epitaxy and characterization of LiYF4:Nd layers,” J. Alloys Compounds (to be published).

Large, A. C.

I. Chartier, B. Ferrand, D. Pelenc, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, Opt. Lett. 17, 810 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 27, 2375 (1991).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

R. A. McFarlane, M. Liu, and D. Yap, J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 82 (1995).
[Crossref]

McFarlane, R. A.

R. A. McFarlane, M. Liu, and D. Yap, J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 82 (1995).
[Crossref]

Millar, C. A.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
[Crossref]

Norton, D. P.

D. P. Norton, J. D. Budai, B. C. Chakoumakos, D. B. Geohegan, and A. Puretzky, in Advanced Laser Processing of Materials—Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 397 of Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), p. 259.

Pelenc, D.

Puretzky, A.

D. P. Norton, J. D. Budai, B. C. Chakoumakos, D. B. Geohegan, and A. Puretzky, in Advanced Laser Processing of Materials—Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 397 of Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), p. 259.

Rogin, P.

P. Rogin and J. Hulliger, J. Cryst. Growth 172, 200 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. Rogin and J. Hulliger, Proc. SPIE 2986, 39 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schweizer, T.

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, D. P.

I. Chartier, B. Ferrand, D. Pelenc, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, Opt. Lett. 17, 810 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 27, 2375 (1991).
[Crossref]

Smart, R. G.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[Crossref]

Szebesta, D.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
[Crossref]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[Crossref]

Townsend, P. D.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 27, 2375 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tropper, A. C.

I. Chartier, B. Ferrand, D. Pelenc, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, Opt. Lett. 17, 810 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 27, 2375 (1991).
[Crossref]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[Crossref]

Whitley, T. J.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wyatt, R.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
[Crossref]

Yap, D.

R. A. McFarlane, M. Liu, and D. Yap, J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 82 (1995).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 27, 2375 (1991).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383 (1994).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (4)

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1307 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, and W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[Crossref]

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 27, 2375 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

P. Rogin and J. Hulliger, J. Cryst. Growth 172, 200 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. McFarlane, M. Liu, and D. Yap, J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 82 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. Rogin and J. Hulliger, Proc. SPIE 2986, 39 (1997).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

L. Douysset-Bloch, B. Ferrand, M. Couchaud, L. Fulbert, M. F. Joubert, G. Chadeyron, and B. Jacquier, “Growth by liquid phase epitaxy and characterization of LiYF4:Nd layers,” J. Alloys Compounds (to be published).

P. W. France, ed., Optical Fibre Lasers and Amplifiers (Blackie, London, 1991).

D. P. Norton, J. D. Budai, B. C. Chakoumakos, D. B. Geohegan, and A. Puretzky, in Advanced Laser Processing of Materials—Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 397 of Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), p. 259.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Process steps in the fabrication of ridge waveguides: A, growth of the active layer; B, edge formation of the waveguide by mechanical polishing; C, growth of a cladding layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output versus input curve of the Nd:YLF ridge waveguide laser.

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