Abstract

Based on a multi-three-wave mixing model, we theoretically study the resistance against light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:M (M=Mg2+, Zn2+, In3+, Sc3+) crystals. We have simulated the intensity angular distribution of light-induced scatterings. We have also shown that the total light-induced scattering will be much less than 1% of the incident light intensity when the photovoltaic field Eph is less than 4.0×106 V/m. Phase gratings and signal beams can still be formed and amplified effectively in LiNbO3:M crystals, with Eph less than 4.0×106 V/m.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Parshall, M. Cronin-Golomb, and R. Barakat, Opt. Lett. 20, 432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

1990 (1)

M. Segev, Y. Ophir, and B. Fischer, Opt. Commun. 77, 265 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

L. B. Au and L. Solymar, Appl. Phys. B 45, 125 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Au, L. B.

L. B. Au and L. Solymar, Appl. Phys. B 45, 125 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barakat, R.

Bryan, D. A.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Dai, J.-Hua

Engin, D.

Fang, Q.

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, Y. Ophir, and B. Fischer, Opt. Commun. 77, 265 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gerson, R.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y.-Hua

Krätzig, E.

E. Krätzig and O. F. Schirmer, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Application II, P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, eds., Vol. 62 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 131–163.

Liu, S.

G. Zhang, G. Tian, S. Liu, J. Xu, G. Zhang, and Q. Sun, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2823 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ma, C.

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mamaev, A. V.

Ophir, Y.

M. Segev, Y. Ophir, and B. Fischer, Opt. Commun. 77, 265 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Parshall, E.

Razumovski, N. V.

Rubinina, N.

Rubinina, N. M.

Schirmer, O. F.

E. Krätzig and O. F. Schirmer, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Application II, P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, eds., Vol. 62 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 131–163.

Segev, M.

Solymar, L.

L. B. Au and L. Solymar, Appl. Phys. B 45, 125 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

G. Zhang, G. Tian, S. Liu, J. Xu, G. Zhang, and Q. Sun, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2823 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tian, G.

Tomaschke, H. E.

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

Volk, T.

Volk, T. R.

Wöhlecke, M.

Xie, P.

Xu, J.

G. Zhang, G. Tian, S. Liu, J. Xu, G. Zhang, and Q. Sun, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2823 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.-Guang

Yariv, A.

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, G. Tian, S. Liu, J. Xu, G. Zhang, and Q. Sun, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2823 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, G. Tian, S. Liu, J. Xu, G. Zhang, and Q. Sun, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2823 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.-Jun

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. B. Au and L. Solymar, Appl. Phys. B 45, 125 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 847 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Segev, Y. Ophir, and B. Fischer, Opt. Commun. 77, 265 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, Proc. SPIE 2529, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. Krätzig and O. F. Schirmer, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Application II, P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, eds., Vol. 62 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 131–163.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated intensity angular distribution of beam fanning. The angle θ is in air; intensity is in arbitrary units. The parameters used to calculate the curve are ne=2.2, no=2.286, r51=28.0×10-12 m/V, r33=30.8×10-12 m/V, ϕIi=π, λ=632.8 nm, Φi0=0, Ip0=104 W/m2, Ii0/Ip0=10-6, ξ=0.15, Eph=1.0×107 V/m, and L=1 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Total beam-fanning percentage R=2i=1mIi/Io×100% versus the photovoltaic field Eph. Eph varies from 1.0×105 to 2.0×107 V/m. ξ=0.15, m=40, and Ii0/Ip0=10-6 for the solid curve; ξ=1.0, m=80, and Ii0/Ip0=0.5×10-6 for the dashed curve. Other parameters used to calculate the curves are the same as those in Fig.  1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated angular distribution of the signal gain G=IsL/Is0. The initial signal-to-pump intensity ratio Is0/Ip0 is 10-4, the initial phase Φs0 is -π/2, Eph equals 4.0×106 V/m, ξ is 1.0 for the solid curve and 0.15 is for the dashed one, and all other parameters are the same as those for Fig.  1.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φix=2LσiIo2Ii cos θi-Ip1+cos Φi+δkiL,
Iix=-2σiLIpIiIo sin Φi,
Ipx=4IpIoLi=1mσi cos θiIi sin Φi,
Io=Ip+2i=1mIi.
γi=jω2noδni2kc2 cos θiexp-jϕIi.
reffi=r33ne4 cos θi cosθi/2+no2ne2r51 sin θi sinθi/2no3ne,

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