Abstract

A novel scanning probe technique that is able to image surface magnetic and electric properties has been developed. It is based on the near-field microscopy of surface second-harmonic generation. We have demonstrated the capability of the technique by imaging the domain structure of a Ni single crystal and a piezoelectric ceramic.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Feder, ed. Polarized Electrons in Surface Physics (World Scientific, Singapore, 1985).
  2. M. Born and E. Wolfe, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1959).
  3. R. D. Gomez, E. R. Burke, and I. D. Mayergoyz, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6441 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds., Near Field Optics (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, and E. M. Gyorgy, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Durkan, I. V. Shvets, and J. C. Lodder, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1323 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Reif, C. Rau, and E. Matthias, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1931 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Koopmans, M. G. Koerkamp, Th. Rasing, and H. van den Berg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3692 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, N16 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. J. Song, D. Heskett, H. L. Dai, A. Liebsch, and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1380 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Straub, R. Vollmer, and J. Kirschner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 743 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (Wiley, New York, 1996).

1997 (3)

C. Durkan, I. V. Shvets, and J. C. Lodder, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, N16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Straub, R. Vollmer, and J. Kirschner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 743 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Gomez, E. R. Burke, and I. D. Mayergoyz, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Koopmans, M. G. Koerkamp, Th. Rasing, and H. van den Berg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

J. Reif, C. Rau, and E. Matthias, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1931 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, and E. M. Gyorgy, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. J. Song, D. Heskett, H. L. Dai, A. Liebsch, and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1380 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, and E. M. Gyorgy, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolfe, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1959).

Burke, E. R.

R. D. Gomez, E. R. Burke, and I. D. Mayergoyz, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H. L.

K. J. Song, D. Heskett, H. L. Dai, A. Liebsch, and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1380 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, N16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, and E. M. Gyorgy, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Durkan, C.

C. Durkan, I. V. Shvets, and J. C. Lodder, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, R. D.

R. D. Gomez, E. R. Burke, and I. D. Mayergoyz, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gyorgy, E. M.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, and E. M. Gyorgy, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, and E. M. Gyorgy, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hellman, F.

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, and E. M. Gyorgy, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Heskett, D.

K. J. Song, D. Heskett, H. L. Dai, A. Liebsch, and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1380 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirilyuk, A.

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kirilyuk, V.

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kirschner, J.

M. Straub, R. Vollmer, and J. Kirschner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 743 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kittel, C.

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (Wiley, New York, 1996).

Koerkamp, M. G.

B. Koopmans, M. G. Koerkamp, Th. Rasing, and H. van den Berg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koopmans, B.

B. Koopmans, M. G. Koerkamp, Th. Rasing, and H. van den Berg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kryder, M. H.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liebsch, A.

K. J. Song, D. Heskett, H. L. Dai, A. Liebsch, and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1380 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lodder, J. C.

C. Durkan, I. V. Shvets, and J. C. Lodder, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, E.

J. Reif, C. Rau, and E. Matthias, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1931 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayergoyz, I. D.

R. D. Gomez, E. R. Burke, and I. D. Mayergoyz, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pan, R.-P.

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Plummer, E. W.

K. J. Song, D. Heskett, H. L. Dai, A. Liebsch, and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1380 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasing, Th.

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Koopmans, M. G. Koerkamp, Th. Rasing, and H. van den Berg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rau, C.

J. Reif, C. Rau, and E. Matthias, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1931 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, J.

J. Reif, C. Rau, and E. Matthias, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1931 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, I. V.

C. Durkan, I. V. Shvets, and J. C. Lodder, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, N16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Song, K. J.

K. J. Song, D. Heskett, H. L. Dai, A. Liebsch, and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1380 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Straub, M.

M. Straub, R. Vollmer, and J. Kirschner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 743 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, and E. M. Gyorgy, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659 (1992).
[CrossRef]

van den Berg, H.

B. Koopmans, M. G. Koerkamp, Th. Rasing, and H. van den Berg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, R.

M. Straub, R. Vollmer, and J. Kirschner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 743 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, H. D.

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, and E. M. Gyorgy, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, E.

M. Born and E. Wolfe, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1959).

Wolfe, R.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, N16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Durkan, I. V. Shvets, and J. C. Lodder, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1323 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, and E. M. Gyorgy, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Gomez, E. R. Burke, and I. D. Mayergoyz, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6441 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, N16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R.-P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

B. Koopmans, M. G. Koerkamp, Th. Rasing, and H. van den Berg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3692 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Song, D. Heskett, H. L. Dai, A. Liebsch, and E. W. Plummer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1380 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Straub, R. Vollmer, and J. Kirschner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 743 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reif, C. Rau, and E. Matthias, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1931 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds., Near Field Optics (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Feder, ed. Polarized Electrons in Surface Physics (World Scientific, Singapore, 1985).

M. Born and E. Wolfe, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1959).

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (Wiley, New York, 1996).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for near-field SH microscopy. An auxiliary laser is used for shear-force feedback control.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Topography and (b), (c) SH light distribution measured for the Ni single crystal (b) before and (c) after exposure to a strong magnetic field. The inset shows the cross section of the SH image in (b) perpendicular to a domain wall.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SH intensity distribution over the piezoceramic surface. This image is a superposition of the surface topography shown as a quasi-three-dimensional view and the half-tone SH image.

Equations (1)

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Pi2ω=χijkdEjω+χijklmEjωEkωMl+.

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