Abstract

Fluorescence intensity depends strongly on the distance between the emitting molecule and a metallic interface. We show that a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) is a simple and versatile tool for studying such an effect. The fluorescent molecules are embedded in a layer upon a silica substrate, and metal is coated on the SNOM tip. We present variations of fluorescence intensity versus tip–sample distance from 800 to 80 nm. A simple model is used to explain the experimental results. The proposed setup could be used to study nonradiative transfer at a nanometric scale. It could also yield to a new type of optical near-field profiler that uses fluorescent signal.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Kuhn, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 101 (1970).
  2. K. H. Drexhage, in Progress in Optics XII (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1974) p. 165.
  3. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 27, 1 (1977).
  4. G. S. Agarwal, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1475 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. F. Arnoldus and T. F. George, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4263 (1987).
  6. A. Adams, R. W. Rendell, W. P. West, H. P. Broida, P. K. Hansma, and H. Metiu, Phys. Rev. B 21, 5565 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Campion, A. R. Gallo, C. B. Harris, H. J. Robota, and P. M. Whitmore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 447 (1980).
  8. R. Rossetti and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1146 (1982).
  9. H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. S. Xie and R. C. Dunn, Science 265, 361 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. D. Pedarnig, M. Specht, and T. W. Hansch, International Conference on Near-Field Optics, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 151.
  14. D. Barchiesi, T. Pagnot, C. Pieralli, and D. Van Labeke, Proc. SPIE 2384, 90 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Ch. Girard, O. J. F. Martin, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3098 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. S. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Jalocha and C. Pieralli, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 793 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. A. Valaskovick, M. Hotton, and G. H. Morisson, Appl. Opt. 19, 3793 (1995).
  19. D. Barchiesi, Opt. Commun. 126, 7 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. Barchiesi, Opt. Commun. 126, 7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

G. A. Valaskovick, M. Hotton, and G. H. Morisson, Appl. Opt. 19, 3793 (1995).

D. Barchiesi, T. Pagnot, C. Pieralli, and D. Van Labeke, Proc. SPIE 2384, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Girard, O. J. F. Martin, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3098 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (4)

X. S. Xie and R. C. Dunn, Science 265, 361 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jalocha and C. Pieralli, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. S. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

H. F. Arnoldus and T. F. George, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4263 (1987).

1982 (1)

R. Rossetti and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1146 (1982).

1980 (2)

A. Adams, R. W. Rendell, W. P. West, H. P. Broida, P. K. Hansma, and H. Metiu, Phys. Rev. B 21, 5565 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Campion, A. R. Gallo, C. B. Harris, H. J. Robota, and P. M. Whitmore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 447 (1980).

1977 (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 27, 1 (1977).

1975 (1)

G. S. Agarwal, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1475 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

H. Kuhn, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 101 (1970).

Adams, A.

A. Adams, R. W. Rendell, W. P. West, H. P. Broida, P. K. Hansma, and H. Metiu, Phys. Rev. B 21, 5565 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, G. S.

G. S. Agarwal, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1475 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Arnoldus, H. F.

H. F. Arnoldus and T. F. George, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4263 (1987).

Barchiesi, D.

D. Barchiesi, Opt. Commun. 126, 7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Barchiesi, T. Pagnot, C. Pieralli, and D. Van Labeke, Proc. SPIE 2384, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. S. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broida, H. P.

A. Adams, R. W. Rendell, W. P. West, H. P. Broida, P. K. Hansma, and H. Metiu, Phys. Rev. B 21, 5565 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Brus, L. E.

R. Rossetti and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1146 (1982).

Campion, A.

A. Campion, A. R. Gallo, C. B. Harris, H. J. Robota, and P. M. Whitmore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 447 (1980).

Chance, R. R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 27, 1 (1977).

Chichester, R. J.

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

Ch. Girard, O. J. F. Martin, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3098 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexhage, K. H.

K. H. Drexhage, in Progress in Optics XII (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1974) p. 165.

Dunn, R. C.

X. S. Xie and R. C. Dunn, Science 265, 361 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallo, A. R.

A. Campion, A. R. Gallo, C. B. Harris, H. J. Robota, and P. M. Whitmore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 447 (1980).

George, T. F.

H. F. Arnoldus and T. F. George, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4263 (1987).

Girard, Ch.

Ch. Girard, O. J. F. Martin, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3098 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, T. W.

J. D. Pedarnig, M. Specht, and T. W. Hansch, International Conference on Near-Field Optics, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 151.

Hansma, P. K.

A. Adams, R. W. Rendell, W. P. West, H. P. Broida, P. K. Hansma, and H. Metiu, Phys. Rev. B 21, 5565 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Harris, C. B.

A. Campion, A. R. Gallo, C. B. Harris, H. J. Robota, and P. M. Whitmore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 447 (1980).

Harris, T. D.

H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. S. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, H. F.

H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hotton, M.

G. A. Valaskovick, M. Hotton, and G. H. Morisson, Appl. Opt. 19, 3793 (1995).

Irngartinger, T.

W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalocha, A.

A. Jalocha and C. Pieralli, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kostelak, R. S.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. S. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhn, H.

H. Kuhn, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 101 (1970).

Martin, O. J. F.

Ch. Girard, O. J. F. Martin, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3098 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metiu, H.

A. Adams, R. W. Rendell, W. P. West, H. P. Broida, P. K. Hansma, and H. Metiu, Phys. Rev. B 21, 5565 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morisson, G. H.

G. A. Valaskovick, M. Hotton, and G. H. Morisson, Appl. Opt. 19, 3793 (1995).

Pagnot, T.

D. Barchiesi, T. Pagnot, C. Pieralli, and D. Van Labeke, Proc. SPIE 2384, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pedarnig, J. D.

J. D. Pedarnig, M. Specht, and T. W. Hansch, International Conference on Near-Field Optics, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 151.

Pfeiffer, L. N.

H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pieralli, C.

D. Barchiesi, T. Pagnot, C. Pieralli, and D. Van Labeke, Proc. SPIE 2384, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Jalocha and C. Pieralli, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Plakhotnik, T.

W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prock, A.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 27, 1 (1977).

Rendell, R. W.

A. Adams, R. W. Rendell, W. P. West, H. P. Broida, P. K. Hansma, and H. Metiu, Phys. Rev. B 21, 5565 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Robota, H. J.

A. Campion, A. R. Gallo, C. B. Harris, H. J. Robota, and P. M. Whitmore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 447 (1980).

Rossetti, R.

R. Rossetti and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1146 (1982).

Silbey, R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 27, 1 (1977).

Specht, M.

J. D. Pedarnig, M. Specht, and T. W. Hansch, International Conference on Near-Field Optics, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 151.

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. S. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valaskovick, G. A.

G. A. Valaskovick, M. Hotton, and G. H. Morisson, Appl. Opt. 19, 3793 (1995).

Van Labeke, D.

D. Barchiesi, T. Pagnot, C. Pieralli, and D. Van Labeke, Proc. SPIE 2384, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. S. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, K. W.

H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, W. P.

A. Adams, R. W. Rendell, W. P. West, H. P. Broida, P. K. Hansma, and H. Metiu, Phys. Rev. B 21, 5565 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Whitmore, P. M.

A. Campion, A. R. Gallo, C. B. Harris, H. J. Robota, and P. M. Whitmore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 447 (1980).

Wild, U. P.

W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

X. S. Xie and R. C. Dunn, Science 265, 361 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 27, 1 (1977).

Appl. Opt. (1)

G. A. Valaskovick, M. Hotton, and G. H. Morisson, Appl. Opt. 19, 3793 (1995).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Campion, A. R. Gallo, C. B. Harris, H. J. Robota, and P. M. Whitmore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 447 (1980).

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

R. Rossetti and L. E. Brus, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1146 (1982).

H. Kuhn, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 101 (1970).

H. F. Arnoldus and T. F. George, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4263 (1987).

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Barchiesi, Opt. Commun. 126, 7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. S. Agarwal, Phys. Rev. A 12, 1475 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Adams, R. W. Rendell, W. P. West, H. P. Broida, P. K. Hansma, and H. Metiu, Phys. Rev. B 21, 5565 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Girard, O. J. F. Martin, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3098 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Barchiesi, T. Pagnot, C. Pieralli, and D. Van Labeke, Proc. SPIE 2384, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

A. Jalocha and C. Pieralli, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 793 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. S. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Xie and R. C. Dunn, Science 265, 361 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

K. H. Drexhage, in Progress in Optics XII (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1974) p. 165.

J. D. Pedarnig, M. Specht, and T. W. Hansch, International Conference on Near-Field Optics, O. Marti and R. Möller, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), p. 151.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. 3D, three-dimensional; PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental approach curve, showing detected intensity versus tip–sample distance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical fluorescence signal representing the exponential decay time. The ordinate is in arbitrary units, corresponding to the acquisition levels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the smoothing of experimental variations of the fluorescence intensity versus tip–sample distance (Fig. 2) with theoretical variations determined by Eqs. (1)–(5).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

bαd=bαd+bαd+1-q0b0α,
bsdb0=34q0 Im01duu3l11-R2-32q0 Im1duu3l1R exp-2l1dˆ,
bsdb0=q0-34q0 Im01duu3l11-R2-32q0 Im01duu3l1R exp-2l1dˆ,
bpdb0=38q0 Im01duul11-R2+1-u2×1-R2+34q0 Im1duul1×R+1-u2Rexp-2l1dˆ,
bpdb0=q0-38q0 Im01duul11-R2+1-u21-R2+34q0 Im01duul1×R+1-u2Rexp-2l1dˆ.

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