Abstract

We have used a Gaussian standing-wave atom-optical lens to focus a thermal atomic beam. We examine the effect of variations in the intensity profile along the direction of the atomic beam on the performance of our atom-optical lens. For a constant focal-length atom-optical lens, we find that the resolution and contrast of the standing-wave lens are independent of the intensity profile.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, and K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. J. McClelland, R. E. Sholten, E. C. Palm, and R. J. Cellota, Science 262, 877 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. W. McGowan, D. M. Giltner, and S. A. Lee, Opt. Lett. 20, 2535 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. We define throughput as the time required for making a pattern of a given area and thickness.
  5. V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, and G. Timp, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4381 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, G. Timp, and D. M. Tennant, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2823 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, V. Natarajan, and D. Tennant, “Focusing a thermal atomic beam to nanometer resolution using a laser,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.
  8. J. J. McClelland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1761 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. P. Gordon and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1601 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Tanguy, S. Reynaud, M. Matsuoka, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 44, 294 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. K. Berggren, M. Prentiss, G. Timp, and R. E. Behringer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1166 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Dalibard and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1701 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  13. This saturation intensity is a weighted average for δmf=0 over the mf sublevels of the 3S1/2→3P3/2 transition.
  14. See the feature on laser cooling and trapping of atoms, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2023–2278 (1989).

1996 (1)

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, and G. Timp, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4381 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Sholten, E. C. Palm, and R. J. Cellota, Science 262, 877 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, and K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1985 (1)

J. Dalibard and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1701 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

C. Tanguy, S. Reynaud, M. Matsuoka, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 44, 294 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. P. Gordon and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1601 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

J. P. Gordon and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1601 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Behringer, R. E.

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, and G. Timp, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4381 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, G. Timp, and D. M. Tennant, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2823 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Berggren, M. Prentiss, G. Timp, and R. E. Behringer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1166 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, and K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, V. Natarajan, and D. Tennant, “Focusing a thermal atomic beam to nanometer resolution using a laser,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Berggren, K. K.

K. K. Berggren, M. Prentiss, G. Timp, and R. E. Behringer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1166 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, and K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cellota, R. J.

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Sholten, E. C. Palm, and R. J. Cellota, Science 262, 877 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

J. Dalibard and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1701 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. Tanguy, S. Reynaud, M. Matsuoka, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 44, 294 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, and K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalibard, J.

J. Dalibard and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1701 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Giltner, D. M.

Gordon, J. P.

J. P. Gordon and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1601 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. A.

Matsuoka, M.

C. Tanguy, S. Reynaud, M. Matsuoka, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 44, 294 (1983).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, J. J.

J. J. McClelland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1761 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Sholten, E. C. Palm, and R. J. Cellota, Science 262, 877 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGowan, R. W.

Natarajan, V.

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, and G. Timp, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4381 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, G. Timp, and D. M. Tennant, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2823 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, V. Natarajan, and D. Tennant, “Focusing a thermal atomic beam to nanometer resolution using a laser,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Palm, E. C.

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Sholten, E. C. Palm, and R. J. Cellota, Science 262, 877 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, M.

K. K. Berggren, M. Prentiss, G. Timp, and R. E. Behringer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1166 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, and K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynaud, S.

C. Tanguy, S. Reynaud, M. Matsuoka, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 44, 294 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sholten, R. E.

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Sholten, E. C. Palm, and R. J. Cellota, Science 262, 877 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanguy, C.

C. Tanguy, S. Reynaud, M. Matsuoka, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 44, 294 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tennant, D.

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, V. Natarajan, and D. Tennant, “Focusing a thermal atomic beam to nanometer resolution using a laser,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Tennant, D. M.

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, G. Timp, and D. M. Tennant, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2823 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, and K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timp, G.

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, and G. Timp, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4381 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, G. Timp, and D. M. Tennant, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2823 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Berggren, M. Prentiss, G. Timp, and R. E. Behringer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1166 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, and K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, V. Natarajan, and D. Tennant, “Focusing a thermal atomic beam to nanometer resolution using a laser,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, G. Timp, and D. M. Tennant, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2823 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Tanguy, S. Reynaud, M. Matsuoka, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 44, 294 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. P. Gordon and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1601 (1980).
[CrossRef]

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, and G. Timp, Phys. Rev. A 53, 4381 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, and K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Sholten, E. C. Palm, and R. J. Cellota, Science 262, 877 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

We define throughput as the time required for making a pattern of a given area and thickness.

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, V. Natarajan, and D. Tennant, “Focusing a thermal atomic beam to nanometer resolution using a laser,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

This saturation intensity is a weighted average for δmf=0 over the mf sublevels of the 3S1/2→3P3/2 transition.

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