Abstract

We report the measurement of a fast carrier lifetime and large band-gap-resonant optical nonlinearities in an InGaAsP sample grown by He-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Using a 2-µm-thick sample grown on an InP substrate, we observed a carrier lifetime of 15 ps and an index change as large as 0.077 induced by an intense 1-ps pulse at a wavelength of 1.57 µm. Good crystalline structure is maintained in the material during growth, and the absorption spectrum shows a sharp band edge. These properties indicate that materials produced by He-plasma-assisted growth have potential applications in compact ultrafast photonic devices.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. See, for example, Y. Silberberg and P. W. E. Smith, in Nonlinear Photonics, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 185.
    [CrossRef]
  2. See, for example, C. H. Lee, A. Antonelli, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 21, 158 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. See, for example, Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 701 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. See, for example, F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Gupta, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2464 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. D. Benjamin, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Electron. Lett. 30, 1704 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Kostoulas, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1821 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2544 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. B. Mitchell, B. J. Robinson, D. A. Thompson, L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 509 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, T. Kagawa, and H. Iwamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1790 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, Opt. Commun. 127, 73 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. VanStryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Bányai and S. W. Koch, Z. Phys. B 63, 283 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (3)

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Mitchell, B. J. Robinson, D. A. Thompson, L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 509 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, Opt. Commun. 127, 73 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Kostoulas, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1821 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, T. Kagawa, and H. Iwamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Benjamin, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Electron. Lett. 30, 1704 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Gupta, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2464 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. VanStryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

See, for example, F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

L. Bányai and S. W. Koch, Z. Phys. B 63, 283 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

See, for example, Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 701 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

See, for example, C. H. Lee, A. Antonelli, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 21, 158 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Antonelli, A.

See, for example, C. H. Lee, A. Antonelli, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 21, 158 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bányai, L.

L. Bányai and S. W. Koch, Z. Phys. B 63, 283 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Benjamin, S. D.

D. B. Mitchell, B. J. Robinson, D. A. Thompson, L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 509 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, Opt. Commun. 127, 73 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Benjamin, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Electron. Lett. 30, 1704 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. L.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chi, C. C.

See, for example, F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Doany, F. E.

See, for example, F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

Y. Kostoulas, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1821 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

See, for example, Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 701 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

See, for example, F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2464 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. VanStryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, E. S.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Iwamura, H.

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, T. Kagawa, and H. Iwamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kagawa, T.

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, T. Kagawa, and H. Iwamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, Y.

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, T. Kagawa, and H. Iwamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

L. Bányai and S. W. Koch, Z. Phys. B 63, 283 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kostoulas, Y.

Y. Kostoulas, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1821 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

See, for example, C. H. Lee, A. Antonelli, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 21, 158 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Loka, H. S.

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Melloch, M. R.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

See, for example, Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 701 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, D. B.

D. B. Mitchell, B. J. Robinson, D. A. Thompson, L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 509 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

See, for example, C. H. Lee, A. Antonelli, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 21, 158 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

S. Gupta, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2464 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, D. D.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Othonos, A.

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Benjamin, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Electron. Lett. 30, 1704 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, N.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Qian, L.

D. B. Mitchell, B. J. Robinson, D. A. Thompson, L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 509 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, Opt. Commun. 127, 73 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. J.

D. B. Mitchell, B. J. Robinson, D. A. Thompson, L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 509 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. VanStryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. VanStryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

See, for example, Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 701 (1985).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, Y. Silberberg and P. W. E. Smith, in Nonlinear Photonics, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 185.
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

See, for example, Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 701 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W. E.

D. B. Mitchell, B. J. Robinson, D. A. Thompson, L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 509 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, Opt. Commun. 127, 73 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Benjamin, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Electron. Lett. 30, 1704 (1994).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, Y. Silberberg and P. W. E. Smith, in Nonlinear Photonics, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 185.
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, R.

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, T. Kagawa, and H. Iwamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tell, B.

See, for example, Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 701 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. A.

D. B. Mitchell, B. J. Robinson, D. A. Thompson, L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 509 (1996).
[CrossRef]

VanStryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. VanStryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Y. Kostoulas, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1821 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Waxer, L. J.

Y. Kostoulas, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1821 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. VanStryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, J. F.

S. Gupta, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2464 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wicks, G. W.

Y. Kostoulas, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1821 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

See, for example, Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 701 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Woodall, J. M.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

See, for example, Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 701 (1985).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kostoulas, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, G. W. Wicks, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1821 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Mitchell, B. J. Robinson, D. A. Thompson, L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 509 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, T. Kagawa, and H. Iwamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, and C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. D. Benjamin, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Electron. Lett. 30, 1704 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. VanStryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Gupta, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2464 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

See, for example, C. H. Lee, A. Antonelli, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 21, 158 (1977).
[CrossRef]

L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, Opt. Commun. 127, 73 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. B (1)

L. Bányai and S. W. Koch, Z. Phys. B 63, 283 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

See, for example, Y. Silberberg and P. W. E. Smith, in Nonlinear Photonics, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and N. Peyghambarian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), p. 185.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Absorption spectra of InGaAsP samples at wavelengths spanning the band edge. The low-temperature-grown sample is of poor crystalline quality, as evidenced by the lack of an identifiable band edge. (b) Enlargement of (a) near the band edge. Based on their almost identical absorption curves, the crystalline quality of the He-plasma-grown sample is comparable with that of the standard growth sample. (Data for the standard and He-plasma samples have been modified to compensate for the Fabry–Perot effects.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Standard pump–probe measurement of change in transmission through the 2-µm-thick InGaAsP sample grown with He plasma using 1-ps pulses at 1.55 µm showing a 15-ps carrier lifetime.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of index changes induced in the He-plasma-assisted growth and standard growth InGaAsP samples by 1-ps laser pulses of varying intensity and at a series of wavelengths that span the band edge. Points are actual data; curves are guides for the eye.

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