Abstract

A simplified method for planarizing liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCOS) backplanes is presented. The method relies on the planarizing capability of spin-cast benzocyclobutene (BCB) polymeric resin. BCB planarization shows a sixfold reduction in step height on the surface of a typical LCOS backplane. Contact with the underlying pixel circuitry is made by dry etching through openings in the BCB layer. Reflective metal (87% reflectivity) is deposited over the planarized surface and patterned to form high-aperture-ratio pixel mirrors (84%). An average resistance of 0.75 Ω per via was achieved with 3.6-µm-diameter vias in 2-µm-thick BCB. The method and the results of this LCOS backplane planarization and postprocessing are described.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1996 (3)

D. O'Brien, D. McKnight, and A. Fedor, Ferroelectrics 181, 79 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKnight, S. A. Serati, and K. M. Johnson, Ferroelectrics 181, 171 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Litvak and H. Tzeng, Semiconductor Int. 19(7), 259 (1996).

1995 (2)

1994 (3)

1993 (2)

A. O'Hara, J. R. Hannah, I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, and R. J. Holwill, Appl. Opt. 32, 5549 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, and R. Tolles, Solid State Technol. 35, 87 (1992).

1990 (1)

D. Burdeaux, P. Townsend, and J. Carr, J. Electron. Mater. 19, 1357 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

K. Kasahara, T. Yanagisawa, K. Sakai, T. Adachi, K. Inoue, T. Tsutsumi, and H. Hori, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-28, 744 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, T.

K. Kasahara, T. Yanagisawa, K. Sakai, T. Adachi, K. Inoue, T. Tsutsumi, and H. Hori, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-28, 744 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Adema, G.

M. Dibbs, P. Townsend, T. Stokich, B. Huber, C. Mohler, R. Heistand, P. Garrou, G. Adema, M. Berry, and I. Turlik, presented at the 6th International Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering, Electronic Materials and Processes Conference, Baltimore, Md., June 23–25, 1992.

Bath, H.

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, and R. Tolles, Solid State Technol. 35, 87 (1992).

Berry, M.

M. Dibbs, P. Townsend, T. Stokich, B. Huber, C. Mohler, R. Heistand, P. Garrou, G. Adema, M. Berry, and I. Turlik, presented at the 6th International Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering, Electronic Materials and Processes Conference, Baltimore, Md., June 23–25, 1992.

Burdeaux, D.

D. Burdeaux, P. Townsend, and J. Carr, J. Electron. Mater. 19, 1357 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burns, D.

Carr, J.

D. Burdeaux, P. Townsend, and J. Carr, J. Electron. Mater. 19, 1357 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dibbs, M.

M. Dibbs, P. Townsend, T. Stokich, B. Huber, C. Mohler, R. Heistand, P. Garrou, G. Adema, M. Berry, and I. Turlik, presented at the 6th International Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering, Electronic Materials and Processes Conference, Baltimore, Md., June 23–25, 1992.

Fedor, A.

D. O'Brien, D. McKnight, and A. Fedor, Ferroelectrics 181, 79 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Follett, M. A.

Garrou, P.

M. Dibbs, P. Townsend, T. Stokich, B. Huber, C. Mohler, R. Heistand, P. Garrou, G. Adema, M. Berry, and I. Turlik, presented at the 6th International Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering, Electronic Materials and Processes Conference, Baltimore, Md., June 23–25, 1992.

Gourlay, J.

Hannah, J. R.

Heistand, R.

M. Dibbs, P. Townsend, T. Stokich, B. Huber, C. Mohler, R. Heistand, P. Garrou, G. Adema, M. Berry, and I. Turlik, presented at the 6th International Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering, Electronic Materials and Processes Conference, Baltimore, Md., June 23–25, 1992.

Holwill, R. J.

Hori, H.

K. Kasahara, T. Yanagisawa, K. Sakai, T. Adachi, K. Inoue, T. Tsutsumi, and H. Hori, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-28, 744 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Huber, B.

M. Dibbs, P. Townsend, T. Stokich, B. Huber, C. Mohler, R. Heistand, P. Garrou, G. Adema, M. Berry, and I. Turlik, presented at the 6th International Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering, Electronic Materials and Processes Conference, Baltimore, Md., June 23–25, 1992.

Inoue, K.

K. Kasahara, T. Yanagisawa, K. Sakai, T. Adachi, K. Inoue, T. Tsutsumi, and H. Hori, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-28, 744 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K.

Johnson, K. M.

D. J. McKnight, S. A. Serati, and K. M. Johnson, Ferroelectrics 181, 171 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, and R. A. Serati, Appl. Opt. 33, 2775 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, and M. A. Follett, Opt. Lett. 20, 513 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Schuck, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, presented at the Society of Industrial Design International Symposium, San Diego, Calif. dates, 1996.

Kasahara, K.

K. Kasahara, T. Yanagisawa, K. Sakai, T. Adachi, K. Inoue, T. Tsutsumi, and H. Hori, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-28, 744 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, M.

T. Shimoto, K. Matsui, M. Kimura, and K. Utsumi, presented at the International Symposium on Microelectronics, Yokohama, Japan, June 3–5, 1992.

Leggett, R.

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, and R. Tolles, Solid State Technol. 35, 87 (1992).

Litvak, H.

H. Litvak and H. Tzeng, Semiconductor Int. 19(7), 259 (1996).

Matsui, K.

T. Shimoto, K. Matsui, M. Kimura, and K. Utsumi, presented at the International Symposium on Microelectronics, Yokohama, Japan, June 3–5, 1992.

Maury, A.

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, and R. Tolles, Solid State Technol. 35, 87 (1992).

McKnight, D.

McKnight, D. J.

D. J. McKnight, S. A. Serati, and K. M. Johnson, Ferroelectrics 181, 171 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, and R. A. Serati, Appl. Opt. 33, 2775 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, and M. A. Follett, Opt. Lett. 20, 513 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Schuck, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, presented at the Society of Industrial Design International Symposium, San Diego, Calif. dates, 1996.

McOwan, P.

Mohler, C.

M. Dibbs, P. Townsend, T. Stokich, B. Huber, C. Mohler, R. Heistand, P. Garrou, G. Adema, M. Berry, and I. Turlik, presented at the 6th International Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering, Electronic Materials and Processes Conference, Baltimore, Md., June 23–25, 1992.

Monnig, K.

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, and R. Tolles, Solid State Technol. 35, 87 (1992).

Narayanswamy, R.

O'Brien, D.

D. O'Brien, D. McKnight, and A. Fedor, Ferroelectrics 181, 79 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O'Hara, A.

Sakai, K.

K. Kasahara, T. Yanagisawa, K. Sakai, T. Adachi, K. Inoue, T. Tsutsumi, and H. Hori, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-28, 744 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schier, M.

M. Schier, J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, 3238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, M. H.

M. H. Schuck, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, presented at the Society of Industrial Design International Symposium, San Diego, Calif. dates, 1996.

Serati, R. A.

Serati, S. A.

D. J. McKnight, S. A. Serati, and K. M. Johnson, Ferroelectrics 181, 171 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, J.

Shimoto, T.

T. Shimoto, K. Matsui, M. Kimura, and K. Utsumi, presented at the International Symposium on Microelectronics, Yokohama, Japan, June 3–5, 1992.

Sivaram, S.

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, and R. Tolles, Solid State Technol. 35, 87 (1992).

Stokich, T.

M. Dibbs, P. Townsend, T. Stokich, B. Huber, C. Mohler, R. Heistand, P. Garrou, G. Adema, M. Berry, and I. Turlik, presented at the 6th International Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering, Electronic Materials and Processes Conference, Baltimore, Md., June 23–25, 1992.

Tolles, R.

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, and R. Tolles, Solid State Technol. 35, 87 (1992).

Townsend, P.

D. Burdeaux, P. Townsend, and J. Carr, J. Electron. Mater. 19, 1357 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Dibbs, P. Townsend, T. Stokich, B. Huber, C. Mohler, R. Heistand, P. Garrou, G. Adema, M. Berry, and I. Turlik, presented at the 6th International Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering, Electronic Materials and Processes Conference, Baltimore, Md., June 23–25, 1992.

Tsutsumi, T.

K. Kasahara, T. Yanagisawa, K. Sakai, T. Adachi, K. Inoue, T. Tsutsumi, and H. Hori, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-28, 744 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Turlik, I.

M. Dibbs, P. Townsend, T. Stokich, B. Huber, C. Mohler, R. Heistand, P. Garrou, G. Adema, M. Berry, and I. Turlik, presented at the 6th International Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering, Electronic Materials and Processes Conference, Baltimore, Md., June 23–25, 1992.

Turner, R.

Tzeng, H.

H. Litvak and H. Tzeng, Semiconductor Int. 19(7), 259 (1996).

Underwood, I.

Utsumi, K.

T. Shimoto, K. Matsui, M. Kimura, and K. Utsumi, presented at the International Symposium on Microelectronics, Yokohama, Japan, June 3–5, 1992.

Vass, D. G.

Yanagisawa, T.

K. Kasahara, T. Yanagisawa, K. Sakai, T. Adachi, K. Inoue, T. Tsutsumi, and H. Hori, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-28, 744 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Ferroelectrics (2)

D. O'Brien, D. McKnight, and A. Fedor, Ferroelectrics 181, 79 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKnight, S. A. Serati, and K. M. Johnson, Ferroelectrics 181, 171 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

K. Kasahara, T. Yanagisawa, K. Sakai, T. Adachi, K. Inoue, T. Tsutsumi, and H. Hori, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-28, 744 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

M. Schier, J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, 3238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

D. Burdeaux, P. Townsend, and J. Carr, J. Electron. Mater. 19, 1357 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Semiconductor Int. (1)

H. Litvak and H. Tzeng, Semiconductor Int. 19(7), 259 (1996).

Solid State Technol. (1)

S. Sivaram, H. Bath, R. Leggett, A. Maury, K. Monnig, and R. Tolles, Solid State Technol. 35, 87 (1992).

Other (4)

M. H. Schuck, D. J. McKnight, and K. M. Johnson, presented at the Society of Industrial Design International Symposium, San Diego, Calif. dates, 1996.

Dow Chemical Company, Cyclotene 3022 Advanced Electronic Resins, Technical data manual (Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich., 1994).

T. Shimoto, K. Matsui, M. Kimura, and K. Utsumi, presented at the International Symposium on Microelectronics, Yokohama, Japan, June 3–5, 1992.

M. Dibbs, P. Townsend, T. Stokich, B. Huber, C. Mohler, R. Heistand, P. Garrou, G. Adema, M. Berry, and I. Turlik, presented at the 6th International Society for the Advancement of Materials and Process Engineering, Electronic Materials and Processes Conference, Baltimore, Md., June 23–25, 1992.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thin-film layers before and after BCB dry etching for hard and soft/etchback masking methods.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning-electron micrograph of unplanarzied 640×512 pixel LCOS device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning-electron micrograph of planarized–postprocessed 640×512 pixel LCOS device. Vias were dry etched in CF4+O2. Mirrors were wet etched.

Equations (2)

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ηd=r2β2,
DOP=1-taftertbefore,

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