Abstract

We demonstrate self-trapping of one-dimensional and two-dimensional optical beams in a photorefractive KNbO3 crystal. We study the waveguides induced by the self-trapped beams for prospective applications of tunable nonlinear frequency conversion in soliton-induced waveguides.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2551 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Shih and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 21, 1538 (1996)H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 22, 448 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Krolikowski and S. A. Holmstrom, Opt. Lett. 22, 369 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Mitchell and M. Segev, Nature (London) 387, 880 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. De La Fuente, A. Barthelemy, and C. Froehly, Opt. Lett. 16, 793 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, and Y. S. Kivshar, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Mortin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. See, e.g., L. E. Myres, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, Opt. Lett. 21, 591 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, “Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).
  16. For example, in SBN crystals we have found experimentally that a 2+1 D soliton can be launched (with the parameters of Ref.  10) in a direction that deviates by as much as ±8° from the crystalline a axis.
  17. P. Gunter, Opt. Commun. 11, 285 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. S. Cudney, P. Bernasconi, M. Zgonik, J. Fousek, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1339 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. As shown in I. Biaggio, L. Kerkoc, L. S. Wu, P. Gunter, and B. Zysset, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 507 (1992), for wavelengths below 857  nm no configuration for birefringence phase matching exists at room temperature.
    [CrossRef]
  20. Unfortunately, one of the b surfaces of our crystal is damaged, so we cannot investigate all possible alternatives in this normal-cut crystal.
  21. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. It has been brought to our attention that self-focusing effects (that may eventually lead to solitons) in photorefractive KNbO3 have also been (independently) demonstrated by R. Ryf, G. Montemezzani, M. Wiki, and P. Gunter in a paper QThG22 presented at the Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Baltimore, Md., May 18–23, 1997.

1997 (4)

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell and M. Segev, Nature (London) 387, 880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Cudney, P. Bernasconi, M. Zgonik, J. Fousek, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Krolikowski and S. A. Holmstrom, Opt. Lett. 22, 369 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

1995 (4)

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, and Y. S. Kivshar, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Mortin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

As shown in I. Biaggio, L. Kerkoc, L. S. Wu, P. Gunter, and B. Zysset, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 507 (1992), for wavelengths below 857  nm no configuration for birefringence phase matching exists at room temperature.
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1974 (1)

P. Gunter, Opt. Commun. 11, 285 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, A.

Bernasconi, P.

R. S. Cudney, P. Bernasconi, M. Zgonik, J. Fousek, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

Bosenberg, W. R.

Byer, R. L.

See, e.g., L. E. Myres, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, Opt. Lett. 21, 591 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, M. I.

Chen, Z.

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, “Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Christodoulides, D. N.

Crosignani, B.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cudney, R. S.

R. S. Cudney, P. Bernasconi, M. Zgonik, J. Fousek, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De La Fuente, R.

DiPorto, P.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G.

M. Mortin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckardt, R. C.

Feigelson, R. S.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, “Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Fejer, M. M.

See, e.g., L. E. Myres, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, Opt. Lett. 21, 591 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fousek, J.

R. S. Cudney, P. Bernasconi, M. Zgonik, J. Fousek, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Froehly, C.

Gunter, P.

R. S. Cudney, P. Bernasconi, M. Zgonik, J. Fousek, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

As shown in I. Biaggio, L. Kerkoc, L. S. Wu, P. Gunter, and B. Zysset, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 507 (1992), for wavelengths below 857  nm no configuration for birefringence phase matching exists at room temperature.
[CrossRef]

P. Gunter, Opt. Commun. 11, 285 (1974).
[CrossRef]

It has been brought to our attention that self-focusing effects (that may eventually lead to solitons) in photorefractive KNbO3 have also been (independently) demonstrated by R. Ryf, G. Montemezzani, M. Wiki, and P. Gunter in a paper QThG22 presented at the Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Baltimore, Md., May 18–23, 1997.

Holmstrom, S. A.

Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kerkoc, L.

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, and Y. S. Kivshar, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kos, K.

K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, W.

Lee, H.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, “Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marquez-Aguilar, P. A.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ming, H.

K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, D. J.

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, and Y. S. Kivshar, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M.

M. Mitchell and M. Segev, Nature (London) 387, 880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, “Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Montemezzani, G.

It has been brought to our attention that self-focusing effects (that may eventually lead to solitons) in photorefractive KNbO3 have also been (independently) demonstrated by R. Ryf, G. Montemezzani, M. Wiki, and P. Gunter in a paper QThG22 presented at the Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Baltimore, Md., May 18–23, 1997.

Mortin, M.

Myres, L. E.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryf, R.

It has been brought to our attention that self-focusing effects (that may eventually lead to solitons) in photorefractive KNbO3 have also been (independently) demonstrated by R. Ryf, G. Montemezzani, M. Wiki, and P. Gunter in a paper QThG22 presented at the Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Baltimore, Md., May 18–23, 1997.

Salamo, G.

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mortin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

M. Mitchell and M. Segev, Nature (London) 387, 880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 21, 1538 (1996)H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 22, 448 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mortin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, “Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Sharp, E.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M.

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 21, 1538 (1996)H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 22, 448 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, “Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Shultz, J. L.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, and Y. S. Kivshar, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vysloukh, V.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wiki, M.

It has been brought to our attention that self-focusing effects (that may eventually lead to solitons) in photorefractive KNbO3 have also been (independently) demonstrated by R. Ryf, G. Montemezzani, M. Wiki, and P. Gunter in a paper QThG22 presented at the Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Baltimore, Md., May 18–23, 1997.

Wilde, J. P.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, “Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Wu, L. S.

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zgonik, M.

R. S. Cudney, P. Bernasconi, M. Zgonik, J. Fousek, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zysset, B.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. S. Cudney, P. Bernasconi, M. Zgonik, J. Fousek, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Other (4)

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, “Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

For example, in SBN crystals we have found experimentally that a 2+1 D soliton can be launched (with the parameters of Ref.  10) in a direction that deviates by as much as ±8° from the crystalline a axis.

It has been brought to our attention that self-focusing effects (that may eventually lead to solitons) in photorefractive KNbO3 have also been (independently) demonstrated by R. Ryf, G. Montemezzani, M. Wiki, and P. Gunter in a paper QThG22 presented at the Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Baltimore, Md., May 18–23, 1997.

Unfortunately, one of the b surfaces of our crystal is damaged, so we cannot investigate all possible alternatives in this normal-cut crystal.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photographs and beam profiles of (a) a c-polarized 488-nm 1D soliton-forming beam, (b) a c-polarized 632.8-nm 1D probe beam, and (c) a b-polarized 632.8-nm 1D probe beam. The top photographs and beam profiles show the input beam, the middle photographs and profiles show the diffracted beams at zero voltage, and the bottom photographs and profiles show the soliton and the probe beams guided in the soliton-induced waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photographs and beam profiles (cross sections) of (a) a c-polarized 488-nm 2D soliton-forming beam and (b) a c-polarized 632.8-nm 2D probe beam. The top photographs and cross sections show the input beams, the middle photographs and profiles show the diffracted beams at zero voltage, and the bottom photographs and profiles show the elliptical self-trapped 2D beam and the probe beam guided in the 2D induced waveguide.

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