Abstract

We describe a novel optical system for bidirectional color Doppler imaging of flow in biological tissues with micrometer-scale resolution and demonstrate its use for <i>in vivo</i> imaging of blood flow in an animal model. Our technique, color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT), performs spatially localized optical Doppler velocimetry by use of scanning low-coherence interferometry. CDOCT is an extension of optical coherence tomography (OCT), employing coherent signal-acquisition electronics and joint time-frequency analysis algorithms to perform flow imaging simultaneous with conventional OCT imaging. Cross-sectional maps of blood flow velocity with <50-µm spatial resolution and <0.6-mm/s velocity precision were obtained through intact skin in living hamster subdermal tissue. This technology has several potential medical applications.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. W. Kremkau, Diagnostic Ultrasound (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1989).
  2. R. Bonner and R. Nossal, Appl. Opt. 20, 2097 (1981).
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  4. J. A. Izatt and M. D. Kulkarni, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper CPD3–1.
  5. Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 64 (1997).
  6. Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, T. Lindmo, D. Smithies, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Proc. SPIE 2981, 112 (1997).
  7. J. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, and A. J. Welch, Proc. SPIE 2970, 266 (1997).
  8. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
  9. Animal experiments were conducted under a protocol approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine.
  10. H. D. Papenfuss, J. F. Gross, M. Intaglietta, and F. A. Treese, Microvasc. Res. 18, 311 (1979).
  11. J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
  12. M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 59–60.
  13. S. H. Nawab and T. F. Quatieri, in Advanced Topics in Signal Processing, J. S. Lim and A. V. Oppenheim, eds. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1988), Chap. 6.
  14. X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 20, 1337 (1995).

1997

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, T. Lindmo, D. Smithies, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Proc. SPIE 2981, 112 (1997).

J. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, and A. J. Welch, Proc. SPIE 2970, 266 (1997).

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 64 (1997).

1996

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).

M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 59–60.

J. A. Izatt and M. D. Kulkarni, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper CPD3–1.

1995

1990

C. E. Riva, B. L. Petrig, and J. E. Grunwald, in Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, A. P. Shepherd and P. A. Oberg, eds. (Kluwer, Boston, Mass., 1990), pp. 349–409.

1989

F. W. Kremkau, Diagnostic Ultrasound (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1989).

1988

S. H. Nawab and T. F. Quatieri, in Advanced Topics in Signal Processing, J. S. Lim and A. V. Oppenheim, eds. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1988), Chap. 6.

1981

Barton, J.

J. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, and A. J. Welch, Proc. SPIE 2970, 266 (1997).

Bonner, R.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, T. Lindmo, D. Smithies, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Proc. SPIE 2981, 112 (1997).

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 64 (1997).

Dave, D.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 64 (1997).

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, T. Lindmo, D. Smithies, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Proc. SPIE 2981, 112 (1997).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Gross, J. F.

H. D. Papenfuss, J. F. Gross, M. Intaglietta, and F. A. Treese, Microvasc. Res. 18, 311 (1979).

Grunwald, J. E.

C. E. Riva, B. L. Petrig, and J. E. Grunwald, in Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, A. P. Shepherd and P. A. Oberg, eds. (Kluwer, Boston, Mass., 1990), pp. 349–409.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Intaglietta, M.

H. D. Papenfuss, J. F. Gross, M. Intaglietta, and F. A. Treese, Microvasc. Res. 18, 311 (1979).

Izatt, J. A.

J. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, and A. J. Welch, Proc. SPIE 2970, 266 (1997).

M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 59–60.

J. A. Izatt and M. D. Kulkarni, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper CPD3–1.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).

Kobayashi, K.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).

Kremkau, F. W.

F. W. Kremkau, Diagnostic Ultrasound (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1989).

Kulkarni, M. D.

J. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, and A. J. Welch, Proc. SPIE 2970, 266 (1997).

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).

J. A. Izatt and M. D. Kulkarni, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper CPD3–1.

M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 59–60.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Lindmo, T.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, T. Lindmo, D. Smithies, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Proc. SPIE 2981, 112 (1997).

Milner, T. E.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, T. Lindmo, D. Smithies, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Proc. SPIE 2981, 112 (1997).

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 64 (1997).

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 20, 1337 (1995).

Nawab, S. H.

S. H. Nawab and T. F. Quatieri, in Advanced Topics in Signal Processing, J. S. Lim and A. V. Oppenheim, eds. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1988), Chap. 6.

Nelson, J. S.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 64 (1997).

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, T. Lindmo, D. Smithies, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Proc. SPIE 2981, 112 (1997).

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 20, 1337 (1995).

Nossal, R.

Papenfuss, H. D.

H. D. Papenfuss, J. F. Gross, M. Intaglietta, and F. A. Treese, Microvasc. Res. 18, 311 (1979).

Petrig, B. L.

C. E. Riva, B. L. Petrig, and J. E. Grunwald, in Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, A. P. Shepherd and P. A. Oberg, eds. (Kluwer, Boston, Mass., 1990), pp. 349–409.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Quatieri, T. F.

S. H. Nawab and T. F. Quatieri, in Advanced Topics in Signal Processing, J. S. Lim and A. V. Oppenheim, eds. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1988), Chap. 6.

Riva, C. E.

C. E. Riva, B. L. Petrig, and J. E. Grunwald, in Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, A. P. Shepherd and P. A. Oberg, eds. (Kluwer, Boston, Mass., 1990), pp. 349–409.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Sivak, M. V.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).

Smithies, D.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, T. Lindmo, D. Smithies, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Proc. SPIE 2981, 112 (1997).

Srinivas, S.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, T. Lindmo, D. Smithies, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Proc. SPIE 2981, 112 (1997).

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Treese, F. A.

H. D. Papenfuss, J. F. Gross, M. Intaglietta, and F. A. Treese, Microvasc. Res. 18, 311 (1979).

Wang, H. W.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).

Wang, X. J.

Welch, A. J.

J. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, and A. J. Welch, Proc. SPIE 2970, 266 (1997).

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).

Microvasc. Res.

H. D. Papenfuss, J. F. Gross, M. Intaglietta, and F. A. Treese, Microvasc. Res. 18, 311 (1979).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, T. Lindmo, D. Smithies, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Proc. SPIE 2981, 112 (1997).

J. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, and A. J. Welch, Proc. SPIE 2970, 266 (1997).

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).

Other

Animal experiments were conducted under a protocol approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine.

M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 59–60.

S. H. Nawab and T. F. Quatieri, in Advanced Topics in Signal Processing, J. S. Lim and A. V. Oppenheim, eds. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1988), Chap. 6.

F. W. Kremkau, Diagnostic Ultrasound (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1989).

C. E. Riva, B. L. Petrig, and J. E. Grunwald, in Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, A. P. Shepherd and P. A. Oberg, eds. (Kluwer, Boston, Mass., 1990), pp. 349–409.

J. A. Izatt and M. D. Kulkarni, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper CPD3–1.

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