Abstract

Tunable, narrow-bandwidth <200-MHz, 215-nm radiation was produced by frequency quadrupling the 860-nm output of a high-power, pulsed GaAlAs tapered amplifier seeded by an external-cavity diode laser. Pulsing the amplifier increased the 860 nm215 nm conversion efficiency by 2 orders of magnitude with respect to cw operation. Detection of nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide by high-resolution absorption spectroscopy was demonstrated.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Fehér and P. A. Martin, Spectrochim. Acta A 51, 1579 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. For example, the integral cross section of NO at 296  K is 1.3×10-19 cm-1/molcm-2 at ∼6.2 µm (Ref. 3) and 1.8×10-17 cm-1/molcm-2 at ∼215 nm (Ref.  4); the corresponding low-pressure (Doppler-broadened) peak absorption cross sections are 3.0×10-17 cm2/mol and 1.7×10-16 cm2/mol, respectively.
  3. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. J. D. Farmer, V. Hasson, and R. W. Nicholls, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 627 (1972);W. G. Mallard, J. H. Miller, and K. C. Smyth, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 3483 (1982); J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, and N. M. Laurendeau, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 43 (1992); R. N. Zare, Angular Momentum (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 314.
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Goldberg and D. A. V. Kliner, Opt. Lett. 20, 1145 (1995); Opt. Lett.1640 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Goldberg, M. R. Surette, and D. Mehuys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2304 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J.-C. Baumert, P. Günter, and M. Melchior, Opt. Commun. 48, 215 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. P. Wayne, Chemistry of Atmospheres (Oxford University, New York, 1991).
  10. D. E. Freeman, K. Yoshino, J. R. Esmond, and W. H. Parkinson, Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1125 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

1995

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg and D. A. V. Kliner, Opt. Lett. 20, 1145 (1995); Opt. Lett.1640 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fehér and P. A. Martin, Spectrochim. Acta A 51, 1579 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

L. Goldberg, M. R. Surette, and D. Mehuys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. E. Freeman, K. Yoshino, J. R. Esmond, and W. H. Parkinson, Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

J.-C. Baumert, P. Günter, and M. Melchior, Opt. Commun. 48, 215 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1972

A. J. D. Farmer, V. Hasson, and R. W. Nicholls, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 627 (1972);W. G. Mallard, J. H. Miller, and K. C. Smyth, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 3483 (1982); J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, and N. M. Laurendeau, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 43 (1992); R. N. Zare, Angular Momentum (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 314.
[CrossRef]

Baumert, J.-C.

J.-C. Baumert, P. Günter, and M. Melchior, Opt. Commun. 48, 215 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Esmond, J. R.

D. E. Freeman, K. Yoshino, J. R. Esmond, and W. H. Parkinson, Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, A. J. D.

A. J. D. Farmer, V. Hasson, and R. W. Nicholls, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 627 (1972);W. G. Mallard, J. H. Miller, and K. C. Smyth, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 3483 (1982); J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, and N. M. Laurendeau, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 43 (1992); R. N. Zare, Angular Momentum (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 314.
[CrossRef]

Fehér, M.

M. Fehér and P. A. Martin, Spectrochim. Acta A 51, 1579 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, D. E.

D. E. Freeman, K. Yoshino, J. R. Esmond, and W. H. Parkinson, Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

L. Goldberg and D. A. V. Kliner, Opt. Lett. 20, 1145 (1995); Opt. Lett.1640 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Goldberg, M. R. Surette, and D. Mehuys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

J.-C. Baumert, P. Günter, and M. Melchior, Opt. Commun. 48, 215 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hasson, V.

A. J. D. Farmer, V. Hasson, and R. W. Nicholls, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 627 (1972);W. G. Mallard, J. H. Miller, and K. C. Smyth, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 3483 (1982); J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, and N. M. Laurendeau, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 43 (1992); R. N. Zare, Angular Momentum (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 314.
[CrossRef]

Hemmerich, A.

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kliner, D. A. V.

Martin, P. A.

M. Fehér and P. A. Martin, Spectrochim. Acta A 51, 1579 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mehuys, D.

L. Goldberg, M. R. Surette, and D. Mehuys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, M.

J.-C. Baumert, P. Günter, and M. Melchior, Opt. Commun. 48, 215 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, R. W.

A. J. D. Farmer, V. Hasson, and R. W. Nicholls, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 627 (1972);W. G. Mallard, J. H. Miller, and K. C. Smyth, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 3483 (1982); J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, and N. M. Laurendeau, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 43 (1992); R. N. Zare, Angular Momentum (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 314.
[CrossRef]

Parkinson, W. H.

D. E. Freeman, K. Yoshino, J. R. Esmond, and W. H. Parkinson, Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Surette, M. R.

L. Goldberg, M. R. Surette, and D. Mehuys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vuletic, V.

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wayne, R. P.

R. P. Wayne, Chemistry of Atmospheres (Oxford University, New York, 1991).

Yoshino, K.

D. E. Freeman, K. Yoshino, J. R. Esmond, and W. H. Parkinson, Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, C.

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg, M. R. Surette, and D. Mehuys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2304 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, and R. A. Toth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. J. D. Farmer, V. Hasson, and R. W. Nicholls, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 12, 627 (1972);W. G. Mallard, J. H. Miller, and K. C. Smyth, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 3483 (1982); J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, and N. M. Laurendeau, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 43 (1992); R. N. Zare, Angular Momentum (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 314.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J.-C. Baumert, P. Günter, and M. Melchior, Opt. Commun. 48, 215 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Planet. Space Sci.

D. E. Freeman, K. Yoshino, J. R. Esmond, and W. H. Parkinson, Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta A

M. Fehér and P. A. Martin, Spectrochim. Acta A 51, 1579 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

For example, the integral cross section of NO at 296  K is 1.3×10-19 cm-1/molcm-2 at ∼6.2 µm (Ref. 3) and 1.8×10-17 cm-1/molcm-2 at ∼215 nm (Ref.  4); the corresponding low-pressure (Doppler-broadened) peak absorption cross sections are 3.0×10-17 cm2/mol and 1.7×10-16 cm2/mol, respectively.

R. P. Wayne, Chemistry of Atmospheres (Oxford University, New York, 1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental apparatus, showing the UV laser system and the setup used to record absorption spectra. FI’s, Faraday isolators; λ/2, half-wave plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average blue power versus average IR power delivered to the KNbO3 crystal for cw and pulsed operation of the TA. The curves correspond to an IR    blue conversion efficiency of blue=1.9%/W (i.e., Pblue=bluePIR2, where Pblue is the blue power); blue was obtained from a least-squares fit to the cw data. The blue power was measured immediately after the KNbO3 crystal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average UV power versus average IR power delivered to the KNbO3 crystal for cw and pulsed operation of the TA. The lines correspond to an IR    UV conversion efficiency of UV=4.5×10-9/W3 (i.e., PUV=UVPIR4, where PUV is the UV IR power); UV was obtained from a least-squares fit to the cw data. The UV power has been corrected for Fresnel losses on the optics and for absorption by the NiSO4·6H2O filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Absorption spectrum of NO recorded with 1  Torr of 1% NO in N2. (b) Spectrum calculated from the spectroscopic constants,4 obtained by determining the line positions and the line strengths and convolving the resultant stick spectrum with a 3-GHz FWHM Gaussian to account for Doppler broadening (296  K). The small discrepancies in some of the line positions between the measured and the calculated spectra are within the uncertainty of the spectroscopic constants and may also have a contribution from nonlinearity in the scanning rate of the seed laser.

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