Abstract

A novel method of time resolving the amplitude and phase of a transient nonlinear-optical polarization, based on Fourier transformation of a spectral interference pattern, is discussed. We show that with this technique the delay at which the polarization is generated can be retrieved. The method is demonstrated in a transient four-wave-mixing experiment on a dye solution.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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1997 (1)

1996 (4)

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Lett. 21, 884 (1996); erratum, Opt. Lett. 21, 1313 (1996); W. J. Walecki, D. N. Fittinghoff, A. L. Smirl, and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 22, 81 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 2953 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11806 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Pshenichnikov, W. P. de Boeij, and D. A. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4701 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

1994 (2)

1993 (4)

1992 (2)

M. Cho, N. F. Scherer, G. R. Fleming, and S. Mukamel, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 5618 (1992); J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, R. G. Ulbrich, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3307 (1993); W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, Chem. Phys. Lett. 238, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Tokunaga, A. Terasaki, and T. Kobayashi, Opt. Lett. 17, 1131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

N. F. Scherer, A. J. Ruggiero, M. Du, and G. R. Fleming, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

Adamietz, F.

Allen, L.

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1975), Chap. 9.

Barthelemy, A.

Bowie, J. L.

Canioni, L.

Chériaux, G.

Cho, M.

M. Cho, N. F. Scherer, G. R. Fleming, and S. Mukamel, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 5618 (1992); J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, R. G. Ulbrich, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3307 (1993); W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, Chem. Phys. Lett. 238, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boeij, W. P.

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 2953 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11806 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Pshenichnikov, W. P. de Boeij, and D. A. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4701 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Pshenichnikov, W. P. de Boeij, and D. A. Wiersma, Opt. Lett. 19, 572 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Wiersma, W. P. de Boeij, M. F. Emde, and M. S. Pshenichnikov, in Ultrafast Phenomena X, Vol 62 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, P. F. Barbara, J. G. Fujimoto, W. H. Knox, and W. Zinth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), p. 279.
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

Du, M.

N. F. Scherer, A. J. Ruggiero, M. Du, and G. R. Fleming, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ducasse, D.

Duchesne, C.

Duppen, K.

M. S. Pshenichnikov, K. Duppen, and D. A. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 674 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Duppen and D. A. Wiersma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 614 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1975), Chap. 9.

Elsaesser, T.

A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, A. Leitenstorfer, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, and W. Stölz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 77 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emde, M. F.

D. A. Wiersma, W. P. de Boeij, M. F. Emde, and M. S. Pshenichnikov, in Ultrafast Phenomena X, Vol 62 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, P. F. Barbara, J. G. Fujimoto, W. H. Knox, and W. Zinth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), p. 279.
[CrossRef]

Fargin, E.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Fleming, G. R.

M. Cho, N. F. Scherer, G. R. Fleming, and S. Mukamel, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 5618 (1992); J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, R. G. Ulbrich, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3307 (1993); W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, Chem. Phys. Lett. 238, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. Scherer, A. J. Ruggiero, M. Du, and G. R. Fleming, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, R. T.

Joffre, M.

Kane, D. J.

Kobayashi, T.

Krumbügel, M. A.

Kuhn, T.

A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, A. Leitenstorfer, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, and W. Stölz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 77 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Flem, G.

Leisching, P.

A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, A. Leitenstorfer, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, and W. Stölz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 77 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, A. Leitenstorfer, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, and W. Stölz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 77 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lepetit, L.

Likforman, J. P.

Lohner, A.

A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, A. Leitenstorfer, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, and W. Stölz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 77 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukamel, S.

M. Cho, N. F. Scherer, G. R. Fleming, and S. Mukamel, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 5618 (1992); J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, R. G. Ulbrich, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3307 (1993); W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, Chem. Phys. Lett. 238, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1995), Chaps. 7 and 8.

Olazcuaga, R.

Panel, R.

Papoulis, A.

A. Papoulis, The Fourier Integral and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962), p. 13.

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 2953 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Pshenichnikov, W. P. de Boeij, and D. A. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4701 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11806 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Pshenichnikov, K. Duppen, and D. A. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 674 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Pshenichnikov, W. P. de Boeij, and D. A. Wiersma, Opt. Lett. 19, 572 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Wiersma, W. P. de Boeij, M. F. Emde, and M. S. Pshenichnikov, in Ultrafast Phenomena X, Vol 62 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, P. F. Barbara, J. G. Fujimoto, W. H. Knox, and W. Zinth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), p. 279.
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, F.

Rick, K.

A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, A. Leitenstorfer, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, and W. Stölz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 77 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, A. Leitenstorfer, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, and W. Stölz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 77 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruggiero, A. J.

N. F. Scherer, A. J. Ruggiero, M. Du, and G. R. Fleming, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

Sarger, L.

Scherer, N. F.

M. Cho, N. F. Scherer, G. R. Fleming, and S. Mukamel, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 5618 (1992); J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, R. G. Ulbrich, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3307 (1993); W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, Chem. Phys. Lett. 238, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. Scherer, A. J. Ruggiero, M. Du, and G. R. Fleming, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Segonds, P.

Stölz, W.

A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, A. Leitenstorfer, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, and W. Stölz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 77 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweetser, J. N.

Terasaki, A.

Tokunaga, E.

Trebino, R.

Walmsley, I. A.

Wiersma, D. A.

M. S. Pshenichnikov, W. P. de Boeij, and D. A. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4701 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11806 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 2953 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Pshenichnikov, K. Duppen, and D. A. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 674 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Pshenichnikov, W. P. de Boeij, and D. A. Wiersma, Opt. Lett. 19, 572 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Duppen and D. A. Wiersma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 614 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Wiersma, W. P. de Boeij, M. F. Emde, and M. S. Pshenichnikov, in Ultrafast Phenomena X, Vol 62 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, P. F. Barbara, J. G. Fujimoto, W. H. Knox, and W. Zinth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), p. 279.
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

M. Cho, N. F. Scherer, G. R. Fleming, and S. Mukamel, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 5618 (1992); J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, R. G. Ulbrich, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3307 (1993); W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, Chem. Phys. Lett. 238, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. Scherer, A. J. Ruggiero, M. Du, and G. R. Fleming, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 2953 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11806 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

E. Tokunaga, A. Terasaki, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4581 (1993); J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 753 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. S. Pshenichnikov, W. P. de Boeij, and D. A. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4701 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, A. Leitenstorfer, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, and W. Stölz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 77 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Pshenichnikov, K. Duppen, and D. A. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 674 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

A. Papoulis, The Fourier Integral and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962), p. 13.

D. A. Wiersma, W. P. de Boeij, M. F. Emde, and M. S. Pshenichnikov, in Ultrafast Phenomena X, Vol 62 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, P. F. Barbara, J. G. Fujimoto, W. H. Knox, and W. Zinth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), p. 279.
[CrossRef]

S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1995), Chaps. 7 and 8.

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1975), Chap. 9.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pulse sequence in a spectral interferometric experiment. Beams E1 and E2 are collinear, i.e., k1=k2, so the transient polarization P3t is emitted in the direction of beam E3: kS=k3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup: PZT, piezoelectric transducer; BS1, BS2, and BS3 are beam splitters with reflectivity of 30%, 50% and 50%, respectively. A compensation plate (CP) ensures equal dispersion in each pathway. The inset shows the absorption and emission spectra of DTTCI, along with the laser spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured signal spectra and (b) the amplitude and phase of the nonlinear polarization. The shaded contours in (a) represent the normalized experimental data, and the dashed curves are the spectral interference fringes ReE1ΩE2*Ω of the excitation pulse pair. The dots in (a) are calculated based on a dynamic model discussed in Ref.  19. The amplitude (shaded contours) and the phase (dashed lines) of the transient polarization (b) are calculated as described in the text. The t=0 point coincides with the last excitation pulse. The contribution of the carrier frequency corresponding to 787  nm is subtracted from the total phase. The delay t12 for each measurement is given in the upper right corner in (a), and the delay t13 was set at 210  fs. The phase difference between the first two excitation pulses was kept at zero at a locking wavelength of 795  nm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SΩAsig2Ω+Aref2Ω+2AsigΩArefΩ×cosΩτ+φrefΩ-φsigΩ,
SΩ, t12, t13E3Ω2+P3Ω, t12, t132+2 ReE3*ΩP3Ω, t12, t13,
SΩ, t12t13ReP3Ω, t12, t13.
P3t, t12, t13-dΩ expiΩtSΩ, t12, t13.

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