Abstract

Photorefractive gratings have been written in Pr:LiNbO3 by use of a diode laser for writing and of filtered white light (390–520  nm) as a gating source. The gating light increases the writing efficiency by more than 3 orders of magnitude, and the two-step writing process provides nondestructive readout. The material sensitivity for two-color writing rises strongly for gating wavelengths near the bandgap and approaches that of Fe-doped lithium niobate at power densities of a few watts per square centimeter. In addition, we show that the dynamic range of the recording process is strongly dependent on the writing intensity.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  4. H. Vormann and E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 49, 843 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. S. Bai and R. Kachru, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2944 (1997); Y. S. Bai, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and R. Kachru, Opt. Lett. 22, 334 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Y. S. Bai and R. Kachru, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2944 (1997); Y. S. Bai, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and R. Kachru, Opt. Lett. 22, 334 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

1993 (3)

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, Phys. Rev. B 48, 15613 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Mironov, I. Sh. Akhmadullin, V. A. Golenishchev-Kutuzov, and S. A. Migachev, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 37, 3179 (1993).

L. Hesselink and M. Bashaw, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 611 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Buse, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, Opt. Commun. 85, 183 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. Vormann and E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 49, 843 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

O. F. Schirmer and D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 35 (1978); E. Krätzig, K. H. Ringhofer, K. Buse, A. Erdmann, F. Jermann, M. Simon, and J. Selinger, “Oxidische Kristalle für elektro- und magneto-optische Anwendungen,” , Universität Osnabrück (1994), p. 314.
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rodgers, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Akhmadullin, I. Sh.

S. P. Mironov, I. Sh. Akhmadullin, V. A. Golenishchev-Kutuzov, and S. A. Migachev, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 37, 3179 (1993).

Amodei, J. J.

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y. S.

Y. S. Bai and R. Kachru, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2944 (1997); Y. S. Bai, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and R. Kachru, Opt. Lett. 22, 334 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashaw, M.

L. Hesselink and M. Bashaw, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 611 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bernal, M.-P.

Betzler, K.

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, Phys. Rev. B 48, 15613 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burr, G. W.

Buse, K.

K. Buse, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, Opt. Commun. 85, 183 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Coufal, H.

Glass, A. M.

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rodgers, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Golenishchev-Kutuzov, V. A.

S. P. Mironov, I. Sh. Akhmadullin, V. A. Golenishchev-Kutuzov, and S. A. Migachev, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 37, 3179 (1993).

Grygier, R. K.

Hesselink, L.

L. Hesselink and M. Bashaw, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 611 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hoffnagle, J. A.

Holtmann, L.

K. Buse, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, Opt. Commun. 85, 183 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jefferson, C. M.

Kachru, R.

Y. S. Bai and R. Kachru, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2944 (1997); Y. S. Bai, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and R. Kachru, Opt. Lett. 22, 334 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kratzig, E.

H. Vormann and E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 49, 843 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Krätzig, E.

K. Buse, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, Opt. Commun. 85, 183 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R. M.

Migachev, S. A.

S. P. Mironov, I. Sh. Akhmadullin, V. A. Golenishchev-Kutuzov, and S. A. Migachev, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 37, 3179 (1993).

Mironov, S. P.

S. P. Mironov, I. Sh. Akhmadullin, V. A. Golenishchev-Kutuzov, and S. A. Migachev, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 37, 3179 (1993).

Mok, F. H.

Psaltis, D.

Rodgers, K. F.

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rodgers, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, O. F.

O. F. Schirmer and D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 35 (1978); E. Krätzig, K. H. Ringhofer, K. Buse, A. Erdmann, F. Jermann, M. Simon, and J. Selinger, “Oxidische Kristalle für elektro- und magneto-optische Anwendungen,” , Universität Osnabrück (1994), p. 314.
[CrossRef]

Schlarb, U.

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, Phys. Rev. B 48, 15613 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. M.

Sincerbox, G. T.

Staebler, D. L.

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

O. F. Schirmer and D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 35 (1978); E. Krätzig, K. H. Ringhofer, K. Buse, A. Erdmann, F. Jermann, M. Simon, and J. Selinger, “Oxidische Kristalle für elektro- und magneto-optische Anwendungen,” , Universität Osnabrück (1994), p. 314.
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rodgers, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Vormann, H.

H. Vormann and E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 49, 843 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wimmer, P.

Wittmann, G.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Schirmer and D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 35 (1978); E. Krätzig, K. H. Ringhofer, K. Buse, A. Erdmann, F. Jermann, M. Simon, and J. Selinger, “Oxidische Kristalle für elektro- und magneto-optische Anwendungen,” , Universität Osnabrück (1994), p. 314.
[CrossRef]

Fiz. Tverd. Tela (1)

S. P. Mironov, I. Sh. Akhmadullin, V. A. Golenishchev-Kutuzov, and S. A. Migachev, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 37, 3179 (1993).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rodgers, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Buse, L. Holtmann, and E. Krätzig, Opt. Commun. 85, 183 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Hesselink and M. Bashaw, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 611 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, Phys. Rev. B 48, 15613 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. S. Bai and R. Kachru, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2944 (1997); Y. S. Bai, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and R. Kachru, Opt. Lett. 22, 334 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

H. Vormann and E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 49, 843 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic-level diagram of the two-color gated photorefractive effect. CB, conduction band; VB, valence band.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangement for writing white-light gated holograms: Coll1, coll2, collimators; PM, photomultiplier; IR, 390–750-nm pass filter; IF, interference filter; LD2, laser diode 2; BS, beam splitter; POL, polarization rotator; AP, anamorphic prism; L1, collimating lens for the diode laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Absorption spectrum of LiNbO3 doped with nominally 0.2% Pr. (b) Dependence of the photon-gated efficiency on the energy of the gating photons when Ar+ laser lines (circles) or filtered white light (triangles) was used. The writing intensity was 5.5 W/cm2; and the gating intensity, 1 W/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical write–read–erase curve for two-color gratings when a distributed Bragg reflector diode laser at 852  nm is used for writing and filtered white light (390–520  nm) from the compact Xe-arc lamp is used for gating. Nondestructive reading is done with unattenuated red light alone, and erasing is a one-photon process that uses the gating light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photorefractive sensitivities S and S as a function of 390–520-nm white-light gating power with a writing intensity of 5 W/cm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Saturation diffraction efficiency as a function of writing intensity. (b) Dependence of M/# on writing intensity.

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