Abstract

Coherent amplification of a signal beam by a strong pump beam is observed in thin films of fullerene-doped nematic liquid crystal. Exponential gain constants as high as 2890 cm<sup>-1</sup> with no phase cross talk are achieved at low applied dc bias voltage and pump beam intensity. The underlying mechanism is the electro-optically induced spatially reorientation of the liquid-crystal axis and the resultant phase-shifted index grating required for two-beam coupling.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. For photorefractive crystals, see G. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Vols. 1 and 2 ; P. Yeh, Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).
  2. For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
  3. For photorefractivity in liquid crystals, see E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP 78, 875 (1994) ; JETP Lett. 59, 142 (1994); and Refs. 4–7.
  4. I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, Opt. Lett. 19, 1723 (1994).
  5. I. C. Khoo, Opt. Lett. 20, 2137 (1995).
  6. I. C. Khoo, IEEE J. Quantum Electronics 32, 525 (1996).
  7. G. P. Widerrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
  8. A. E. T. Chiou and P. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 10, 621 (1985); 11, 461 (1986).
  9. See, for example, E. V. Degtiarev and M. A. Vorontsov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1238 (1995), and references therein.
  10. I. C. Khoo and T. H. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4036 (1989).
  11. J. J. Stankus, S. M. Silence, W. E. Moerner, and G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 19, 1480 (1994), and references therein.
  12. I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), Chap. 2; I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994), Chap. 6.

1995

1994

For photorefractive crystals, see G. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Vols. 1 and 2 ; P. Yeh, Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).

For photorefractivity in liquid crystals, see E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP 78, 875 (1994) ; JETP Lett. 59, 142 (1994); and Refs. 4–7.

J. J. Stankus, S. M. Silence, W. E. Moerner, and G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 19, 1480 (1994), and references therein.

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, Opt. Lett. 19, 1723 (1994).

1993

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), Chap. 2; I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994), Chap. 6.

1991

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

1989

I. C. Khoo and T. H. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4036 (1989).

1985

Bjorklund, G. C.

J. J. Stankus, S. M. Silence, W. E. Moerner, and G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 19, 1480 (1994), and references therein.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Chiou, A. E. T.

Cui, Y.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Degtiarev, E. V.

Ducharme, S.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Hache, F.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, Opt. Lett. 19, 1723 (1994).

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), Chap. 2; I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994), Chap. 6.

I. C. Khoo and T. H. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4036 (1989).

I. C. Khoo, IEEE J. Quantum Electronics 32, 525 (1996).

I. C. Khoo, Opt. Lett. 20, 2137 (1995).

Kippelen, B.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Li, H.

Liang, Y.

Liu, T. H.

I. C. Khoo and T. H. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4036 (1989).

Matray, T. J.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Meerholz, K.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Moerner, W. E.

J. J. Stankus, S. M. Silence, W. E. Moerner, and G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 19, 1480 (1994), and references therein.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Peyghambarian, N.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Prasad, P. N.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Rudenko, E. V.

For photorefractivity in liquid crystals, see E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP 78, 875 (1994) ; JETP Lett. 59, 142 (1994); and Refs. 4–7.

Sandalphon,

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Scott, J. C.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Silence, S. M.

J. J. Stankus, S. M. Silence, W. E. Moerner, and G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 19, 1480 (1994), and references therein.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Stankus, J. J.

Sukhov, A. V.

For photorefractivity in liquid crystals, see E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP 78, 875 (1994) ; JETP Lett. 59, 142 (1994); and Refs. 4–7.

Tweig, R. J.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Volodin, B. L.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Vorontsov, M. A.

Walsh, C. A.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Wasielewski, M. R.

G. P. Widerrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).

Widerrecht, G. P.

G. P. Widerrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).

Wu, S. T.

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), Chap. 2; I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994), Chap. 6.

Yeh, P.

Yoon, B. A.

G. P. Widerrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).

Zhang, Y.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

IEEE J. Quantum Electronics

I. C. Khoo, IEEE J. Quantum Electronics 32, 525 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

JETP

For photorefractivity in liquid crystals, see E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP 78, 875 (1994) ; JETP Lett. 59, 142 (1994); and Refs. 4–7.

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

I. C. Khoo and T. H. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4036 (1989).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

For photorefractive polymers, see S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991) ; S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992) ; Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO 46, 9900 (1992); K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).

Science

G. P. Widerrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).

Other

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), Chap. 2; I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994), Chap. 6.

For photorefractive crystals, see G. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Vols. 1 and 2 ; P. Yeh, Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).

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