Abstract

Optical aberrations that are due to high-speed turbulence in the aero-optical regime are corrected with optical phase conjugation based on coherent population trapping in sodium vapor. Experimental measurements of an unheated, forced helium jet in air have demonstrated aberration correction by a factor of 7.8 at a forcing frequency of 18  kHz with an optical power gain of 32.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. J. Hugo and E. J. Jumper, Appl. Opt. 35, 4436 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. See, for example, R. A. Fisher, ed., Optical Phase Conjugation (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap.  14.
  3. See, for example, B. Monson, G. J. Salamo, A. G. Mott, M. J. Miller, E. J. Sharp, W. W. Clark, G. L. Wood, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Opt. Lett. 15, 12 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. C. Lind and G. J. Dunning, Laser Focus/Electro-Optics 9(19), 14 (1983).
  5. P. R. Hemmer, D. P. Katz, J. Donoghue, M. Cronin-Golomb, M. S. Shahriar, and P. Kumar, Opt. Lett. 20, 982 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. R. Gray, R. M. Whitley, and C. R. Stroud, Opt. Lett. 3, 218 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. P. M. Radmore and P. L. Knight, J. Phys. B 15, 3405 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Donoghue, M. Cronin-Golomb, J. S. Kane, and P. R. Hemmer, Opt. Lett. 16, 1313 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. C. Crow and F. H. Champagne, J. Fluid Mech. 48, 547 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. K. M. F. Hussain and K. M. B. Q. Zaman, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Turbulence, H. Fiedler, ed., Vol. 75 of Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), p. 31.
  13. R. Riva, G. Binder, S. Tardu, and M. Favre-Marinet, in Turbulence and Coherent Structures, O. Metais and M. Lesieur, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991).

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1983 (1)

R. C. Lind and G. J. Dunning, Laser Focus/Electro-Optics 9(19), 14 (1983).

1982 (2)

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[Crossref]

P. M. Radmore and P. L. Knight, J. Phys. B 15, 3405 (1982).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

1976 (1)

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5 (1976).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

S. C. Crow and F. H. Champagne, J. Fluid Mech. 48, 547 (1971).
[Crossref]

Alzetta, G.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5 (1976).
[Crossref]

Binder, G.

R. Riva, G. Binder, S. Tardu, and M. Favre-Marinet, in Turbulence and Coherent Structures, O. Metais and M. Lesieur, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991).

Champagne, F. H.

S. C. Crow and F. H. Champagne, J. Fluid Mech. 48, 547 (1971).
[Crossref]

Clark, W. W.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Crow, S. C.

S. C. Crow and F. H. Champagne, J. Fluid Mech. 48, 547 (1971).
[Crossref]

Donoghue, J.

Dunning, G. J.

R. C. Lind and G. J. Dunning, Laser Focus/Electro-Optics 9(19), 14 (1983).

Ezekiel, S.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[Crossref]

Favre-Marinet, M.

R. Riva, G. Binder, S. Tardu, and M. Favre-Marinet, in Turbulence and Coherent Structures, O. Metais and M. Lesieur, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991).

Gozzini, A.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5 (1976).
[Crossref]

Gray, H. R.

Hemmer, P. R.

Hugo, R. J.

Hussain, A. K. M. F.

A. K. M. F. Hussain and K. M. B. Q. Zaman, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Turbulence, H. Fiedler, ed., Vol. 75 of Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), p. 31.

Jumper, E. J.

Kane, J. S.

Katz, D. P.

Knight, P. L.

P. M. Radmore and P. L. Knight, J. Phys. B 15, 3405 (1982).
[Crossref]

Kumar, P.

Leiby, C. C.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[Crossref]

Lind, R. C.

R. C. Lind and G. J. Dunning, Laser Focus/Electro-Optics 9(19), 14 (1983).

Miller, M. J.

Moi, L.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5 (1976).
[Crossref]

Monson, B.

Mott, A. G.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

Orriols, G.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5 (1976).
[Crossref]

Picard, R. H.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[Crossref]

Radmore, P. M.

P. M. Radmore and P. L. Knight, J. Phys. B 15, 3405 (1982).
[Crossref]

Riva, R.

R. Riva, G. Binder, S. Tardu, and M. Favre-Marinet, in Turbulence and Coherent Structures, O. Metais and M. Lesieur, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991).

Salamo, G. J.

Shahriar, M. S.

Sharp, E. J.

Stroud, C. R.

Tardu, S.

R. Riva, G. Binder, S. Tardu, and M. Favre-Marinet, in Turbulence and Coherent Structures, O. Metais and M. Lesieur, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991).

Thomas, J. E.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[Crossref]

Whitley, R. M.

Willis, C. R.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[Crossref]

Wood, G. L.

Zaman, K. M. B. Q.

A. K. M. F. Hussain and K. M. B. Q. Zaman, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Turbulence, H. Fiedler, ed., Vol. 75 of Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), p. 31.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

S. C. Crow and F. H. Champagne, J. Fluid Mech. 48, 547 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (1)

P. M. Radmore and P. L. Knight, J. Phys. B 15, 3405 (1982).
[Crossref]

Laser Focus/Electro-Optics (1)

R. C. Lind and G. J. Dunning, Laser Focus/Electro-Optics 9(19), 14 (1983).

Nuovo Cimento B (1)

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5 (1976).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, S. Ezekiel, C. C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 867 (1982).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

See, for example, R. A. Fisher, ed., Optical Phase Conjugation (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap.  14.

A. K. M. F. Hussain and K. M. B. Q. Zaman, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Turbulence, H. Fiedler, ed., Vol. 75 of Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), p. 31.

R. Riva, G. Binder, S. Tardu, and M. Favre-Marinet, in Turbulence and Coherent Structures, O. Metais and M. Lesieur, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for turbulence-aberration correction with a FWM-based Na-vapor phase-conjugate mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal-aberration correction: (a) electrical input signal at 17.82  kHz applied to a PZT strip, (b) aberrated probe signal at the PDA after a single pass through the helium jet, and (c) corrected conjugate signal at the PDA after retraversal through the jet.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial-aberration correction: two-dimensional contours (upper plots) and one-dimensional line traces (lower plots) of the spatial intensity distribution of (a) the conjugate beam with helium flow ON, (b) the probe beam with helium flow ON, (c) the conjugate beam with helium flow OFF, and (d) the probe beam with helium flow OFF. Contours in (a) and (c) are drawn at 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20% of the peak intensity, whereas in (b) and (d) they are drawn at 75%, 50%, and 25% of the peak intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Conjugate gain as a function of (a) frequency ωF, (b) frequency ωB, and (d) frequency ωrf. The energy-level diagram for the transitions that are proposed is shown in (c). The numbers 1–4 in (a) and (b) correspond to the following transitions: (1) F=2F=1 (2) F=2F=2, (3) F=1F=1, and (4) F=1F=2.

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