Abstract

Using 334-nm light, we demonstrate side writing of Bragg gratings with an index change of 10-4 in germanium-doped fibers. No hydrogen loading of the fibers was required. These gratings have the same temperature stability as gratings fabricated with 240-nm light. Our results suggest that photoionization is not needed for formation of gratings in Ge-doped glass. We observe an enhancement of the 334-nm photosensitivity in boron-codoped fibers and suggest that B facilitates a structural transformation of the glass.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (4)

L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, Appl. Opt. 34, 3436 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and B. Leuenberger, Opt. Lett. 20, 1346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov and D. S. Starodubov, Proc. SPIE 2777, 60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

V. B. Neustruev, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6, 6901 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Abe, Proc. SPIE 2044, 42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 18, 935 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. A. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Abe, Proc. SPIE 2044, 42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. A. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Abe, Proc. SPIE 2044, 42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J. L.

Armitage, J. A.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. A. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Abe, Proc. SPIE 2044, 42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. A. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cochet, F.

Dianov, E. M.

Dong, L.

Douay, M.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fonjallaz, P. Y.

Friebele, E. J.

Frolov, A. A.

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Georges, T.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

Griscom, D. L.

Guenot, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Abe, Proc. SPIE 2044, 42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Abe, Proc. SPIE 2044, 42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Abe, Proc. SPIE 2044, 42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. A. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Legoubin, S.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leuenberger, B.

Limberger, H. G.

Malo, B.

B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Abe, Proc. SPIE 2044, 42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Medvedkov, O. I.

Meltz, G.

Monerie, M.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

Neustruev, V. B.

V. B. Neustruev, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6, 6901 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

Poumellec, B.

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

Riant, I.

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Salathé, R. P.

Sansonetti, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Starodubov, D. S.

Tsai, T. E.

Vasiliev, S. A.

Williams, D. L.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. A. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. X.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Electron Lett. (1)

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. A. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

V. B. Neustruev, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6, 6901 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. (1)

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, Opt. Mater. 4, 441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

E. M. Dianov and D. S. Starodubov, Proc. SPIE 2777, 60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, and M. Abe, Proc. SPIE 2044, 42 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

IR transmission spectrum of a Bragg grating fabricated by 334-nm light in a 30-mol.  % Ge-doped fiber. The UV-exposure duration was 2  min at 1-kW/cm2 intensity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the total light-induced index change on the fiber’s Ge concentration when near-UV light was used. These Bragg gratings were fabricated by 334-nm light with 250-kJ/cm2 exposure. Boron codoping enhanced the grating strength, but Ce codoping did not.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy-level diagram of a germanium oxygen-deficient defect, showing proposed pathways excited with (a) pulsed mid-UV light and (b) cw near-UV light. The excited triple state relaxes into a new defect state, a drawing-induced defect. This relaxation causes the index change that makes the Bragg gratings.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Thermal isochronal annealing of the Bragg gratings written with near-UV light in Ge fibers with and without B codoping.

Equations (1)

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Δn=2λBarctanhηπL,

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