Abstract

An optical heterodyne array imaging system is described for double-exposure interferometric measurement of objects that change because of stress or vibration. The signal measurement and processing approach is summarized, and the method is demonstrated in the laboratory. An advantage of this technique over other electronic interferometric imaging methods is that complex exposures are created with digital phase and amplitude values at each image pixel. In addition, measurement of object deformation does not require time synchronization between the camera exposure time, or laser pulse time, and object vibration frequency.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Lauterborn, T. Kurz, and M. Wiesenfeldt, Coherent Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), Chap.  8.
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Jones and C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Dupont, J. J. Dewandel, and J. C. Legros, Opt. Lett. 20, 1824 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Davila, D. Kerr, and G. H. Kaufmann, Appl. Opt. 33, 5964 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Schumann, Opt. Eng. 35, 2352 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. G. Voelz, Proc. SPIE 2566, 74 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. G. Voelz, L. McMackin, J. K. Boger, and M. P. Fetrow, presented at the Twelfth Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference (ILS-XII), Rochester, New York, Oct. 20–24, 1996.
  8. M. Takeda and T. Abd, Opt. Eng. 35, 2345 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. J. Moore and C. Perez-Lopez, Opt. Eng. 35, 2641 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, and J. Kato, Opt. Eng. 35, 2930 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Seitz, T. Spirig, O. Vietze, and K. Engelhardt, Opt. Eng. 34, 2299 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (4)

M. Takeda and T. Abd, Opt. Eng. 35, 2345 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore and C. Perez-Lopez, Opt. Eng. 35, 2641 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, and J. Kato, Opt. Eng. 35, 2930 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Schumann, Opt. Eng. 35, 2352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

D. G. Voelz, Proc. SPIE 2566, 74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Seitz, T. Spirig, O. Vietze, and K. Engelhardt, Opt. Eng. 34, 2299 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Dupont, J. J. Dewandel, and J. C. Legros, Opt. Lett. 20, 1824 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Abd, T.

M. Takeda and T. Abd, Opt. Eng. 35, 2345 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boger, J. K.

D. G. Voelz, L. McMackin, J. K. Boger, and M. P. Fetrow, presented at the Twelfth Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference (ILS-XII), Rochester, New York, Oct. 20–24, 1996.

Davila, A.

Dewandel, J. J.

Dupont, O.

Engelhardt, K.

P. Seitz, T. Spirig, O. Vietze, and K. Engelhardt, Opt. Eng. 34, 2299 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fetrow, M. P.

D. G. Voelz, L. McMackin, J. K. Boger, and M. P. Fetrow, presented at the Twelfth Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference (ILS-XII), Rochester, New York, Oct. 20–24, 1996.

Jones, R.

R. Jones and C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Kato, J.

I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, and J. Kato, Opt. Eng. 35, 2930 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, G. H.

Kerr, D.

Kurz, T.

W. Lauterborn, T. Kurz, and M. Wiesenfeldt, Coherent Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), Chap.  8.
[CrossRef]

Lauterborn, W.

W. Lauterborn, T. Kurz, and M. Wiesenfeldt, Coherent Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), Chap.  8.
[CrossRef]

Legros, J. C.

Liu, J.

I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, and J. Kato, Opt. Eng. 35, 2930 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McMackin, L.

D. G. Voelz, L. McMackin, J. K. Boger, and M. P. Fetrow, presented at the Twelfth Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference (ILS-XII), Rochester, New York, Oct. 20–24, 1996.

Moore, A. J.

A. J. Moore and C. Perez-Lopez, Opt. Eng. 35, 2641 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Lopez, C.

A. J. Moore and C. Perez-Lopez, Opt. Eng. 35, 2641 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schumann, W.

W. Schumann, Opt. Eng. 35, 2352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seitz, P.

P. Seitz, T. Spirig, O. Vietze, and K. Engelhardt, Opt. Eng. 34, 2299 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spirig, T.

P. Seitz, T. Spirig, O. Vietze, and K. Engelhardt, Opt. Eng. 34, 2299 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

M. Takeda and T. Abd, Opt. Eng. 35, 2345 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vietze, O.

P. Seitz, T. Spirig, O. Vietze, and K. Engelhardt, Opt. Eng. 34, 2299 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Voelz, D. G.

D. G. Voelz, Proc. SPIE 2566, 74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Voelz, L. McMackin, J. K. Boger, and M. P. Fetrow, presented at the Twelfth Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference (ILS-XII), Rochester, New York, Oct. 20–24, 1996.

Wiesenfeldt, M.

W. Lauterborn, T. Kurz, and M. Wiesenfeldt, Coherent Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), Chap.  8.
[CrossRef]

Wykes, C.

R. Jones and C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, and J. Kato, Opt. Eng. 35, 2930 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Eng. (5)

W. Schumann, Opt. Eng. 35, 2352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Takeda and T. Abd, Opt. Eng. 35, 2345 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore and C. Perez-Lopez, Opt. Eng. 35, 2641 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi, J. Liu, and J. Kato, Opt. Eng. 35, 2930 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Seitz, T. Spirig, O. Vietze, and K. Engelhardt, Opt. Eng. 34, 2299 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. G. Voelz, Proc. SPIE 2566, 74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. G. Voelz, L. McMackin, J. K. Boger, and M. P. Fetrow, presented at the Twelfth Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference (ILS-XII), Rochester, New York, Oct. 20–24, 1996.

W. Lauterborn, T. Kurz, and M. Wiesenfeldt, Coherent Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), Chap.  8.
[CrossRef]

R. Jones and C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1989).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the heterodyne array imaging system: BS’s, beam splitters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Coherent intensity image of a hand-held compressed air can.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Interference intensity image and (b) phase-difference image of a hand-held compressed air can that is warming up. For the difference image, black is -π and white is +π. A mask created by thresholding the intensity image has been applied to the phase image for display purposes.

Equations (10)

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E1r, t=A1rexpjϕ1rexpjωt,
Ereft=Aref expjϕrefexpjω-Δωt,
I1r, t=E1r, t+Ereft2=A1r2+Aref2+2A1r×Aref cosΔωt+ϕ1r+ϕref.
I1rm, tn=A1rm2+Aref2+2A1rmAref cos2πΔνtn+ϕ1rm+ϕref,
Rrm=2Nn=0N-1I1rm, tncos2πΔνtn,
Irm=2Nn=0N-1I1rm, tnsin2πΔνtn.
E1rm=2A1rmAref expjϕ1rm+ϕref.
E2rm=2A1rmAref expjϕ1rm-ϕref+Δϕrm.
I12rm=E1rm+E2rm2=8A1rm2Aref21+cosΔϕrm.
argE2rmE1rm*=Δϕrm.

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