Abstract

We demonstrate an apparatus for measuring time-dependent x-ray diffraction. X-ray pulses from a synchrotron are diffracted by a pair of Si(111) crystals and detected with an x-ray streak camera that has single-shot resolution of better than 1  ps. The streak camera is driven by a photoconductive switch, which is triggered by 100-fs laser pulses at a repetition rate of 1  kHz. The laser and the streak camera are synchronized with the synchrotron pulses. In the averaging mode, trigger jitter results in 2-ps temporal resolution. We measured the duration of 5-keV pulses from the Advanced Light Source synchrotron to be 70  ps.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Bourgeois, T. Ursby, M. Wulff, C. Pradervand, A. Legrand, W. Schildkamp, S. Labouré, V. Šrajer, T. Y. Teng, M. Roth, and K. Moffat, J. Synchrotron Rad. 3, 65 (1996); V. Šrajer, T.-Y. Teng, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, Z. Ren, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, Science 274, 1726 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 133 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K.-J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Knox and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 623 (1980); R. Yen, M. M. Downey, C. V. Shank, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 718 (1984); A. Maksimchuk, M. Kim, J. Workman, G. Korn, J. Squier, D. Du, D. Umstadter, and M. Bouvier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 697 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, X. Zhang, and R. Lee, “Demonstration of a 0.54 picosecond x-ray streak camera,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).
  6. R. Keller, T. Renner, and D. J. Mussiletti, presented at the Seventh Beam Instrumentation Workshop, Argonne, Ill., May 6–9, 1996.

1996 (3)

D. Bourgeois, T. Ursby, M. Wulff, C. Pradervand, A. Legrand, W. Schildkamp, S. Labouré, V. Šrajer, T. Y. Teng, M. Roth, and K. Moffat, J. Synchrotron Rad. 3, 65 (1996); V. Šrajer, T.-Y. Teng, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, Z. Ren, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, Science 274, 1726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K.-J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

W. Knox and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 623 (1980); R. Yen, M. M. Downey, C. V. Shank, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 718 (1984); A. Maksimchuk, M. Kim, J. Workman, G. Korn, J. Squier, D. Du, D. Umstadter, and M. Bouvier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Balling, P.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K.-J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bourgeois, D.

D. Bourgeois, T. Ursby, M. Wulff, C. Pradervand, A. Legrand, W. Schildkamp, S. Labouré, V. Šrajer, T. Y. Teng, M. Roth, and K. Moffat, J. Synchrotron Rad. 3, 65 (1996); V. Šrajer, T.-Y. Teng, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, Z. Ren, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, Science 274, 1726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, X. Zhang, and R. Lee, “Demonstration of a 0.54 picosecond x-ray streak camera,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Chattopadhyay, S.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K.-J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chin, A. H.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K.-J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Glover, T. E.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K.-J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gong, M.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, X. Zhang, and R. Lee, “Demonstration of a 0.54 picosecond x-ray streak camera,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Kapteyn, H. C.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, X. Zhang, and R. Lee, “Demonstration of a 0.54 picosecond x-ray streak camera,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Keller, R.

R. Keller, T. Renner, and D. J. Mussiletti, presented at the Seventh Beam Instrumentation Workshop, Argonne, Ill., May 6–9, 1996.

Kim, K.-J.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K.-J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W.

W. Knox and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 623 (1980); R. Yen, M. M. Downey, C. V. Shank, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 718 (1984); A. Maksimchuk, M. Kim, J. Workman, G. Korn, J. Squier, D. Du, D. Umstadter, and M. Bouvier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Labouré, S.

D. Bourgeois, T. Ursby, M. Wulff, C. Pradervand, A. Legrand, W. Schildkamp, S. Labouré, V. Šrajer, T. Y. Teng, M. Roth, and K. Moffat, J. Synchrotron Rad. 3, 65 (1996); V. Šrajer, T.-Y. Teng, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, Z. Ren, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, Science 274, 1726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, X. Zhang, and R. Lee, “Demonstration of a 0.54 picosecond x-ray streak camera,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Leemans, W. P.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K.-J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Legrand, A.

D. Bourgeois, T. Ursby, M. Wulff, C. Pradervand, A. Legrand, W. Schildkamp, S. Labouré, V. Šrajer, T. Y. Teng, M. Roth, and K. Moffat, J. Synchrotron Rad. 3, 65 (1996); V. Šrajer, T.-Y. Teng, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, Z. Ren, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, Science 274, 1726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, X. Zhang, and R. Lee, “Demonstration of a 0.54 picosecond x-ray streak camera,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Liu, X.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, X. Zhang, and R. Lee, “Demonstration of a 0.54 picosecond x-ray streak camera,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Moffat, K.

D. Bourgeois, T. Ursby, M. Wulff, C. Pradervand, A. Legrand, W. Schildkamp, S. Labouré, V. Šrajer, T. Y. Teng, M. Roth, and K. Moffat, J. Synchrotron Rad. 3, 65 (1996); V. Šrajer, T.-Y. Teng, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, Z. Ren, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, Science 274, 1726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

W. Knox and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 623 (1980); R. Yen, M. M. Downey, C. V. Shank, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 718 (1984); A. Maksimchuk, M. Kim, J. Workman, G. Korn, J. Squier, D. Du, D. Umstadter, and M. Bouvier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, X. Zhang, and R. Lee, “Demonstration of a 0.54 picosecond x-ray streak camera,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Murnane, M. M.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mussiletti, D. J.

R. Keller, T. Renner, and D. J. Mussiletti, presented at the Seventh Beam Instrumentation Workshop, Argonne, Ill., May 6–9, 1996.

Niu, L.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, X. Zhang, and R. Lee, “Demonstration of a 0.54 picosecond x-ray streak camera,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Pradervand, C.

D. Bourgeois, T. Ursby, M. Wulff, C. Pradervand, A. Legrand, W. Schildkamp, S. Labouré, V. Šrajer, T. Y. Teng, M. Roth, and K. Moffat, J. Synchrotron Rad. 3, 65 (1996); V. Šrajer, T.-Y. Teng, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, Z. Ren, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, Science 274, 1726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Renner, T.

R. Keller, T. Renner, and D. J. Mussiletti, presented at the Seventh Beam Instrumentation Workshop, Argonne, Ill., May 6–9, 1996.

Roth, M.

D. Bourgeois, T. Ursby, M. Wulff, C. Pradervand, A. Legrand, W. Schildkamp, S. Labouré, V. Šrajer, T. Y. Teng, M. Roth, and K. Moffat, J. Synchrotron Rad. 3, 65 (1996); V. Šrajer, T.-Y. Teng, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, Z. Ren, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, Science 274, 1726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, A.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, X. Zhang, and R. Lee, “Demonstration of a 0.54 picosecond x-ray streak camera,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Schildkamp, W.

D. Bourgeois, T. Ursby, M. Wulff, C. Pradervand, A. Legrand, W. Schildkamp, S. Labouré, V. Šrajer, T. Y. Teng, M. Roth, and K. Moffat, J. Synchrotron Rad. 3, 65 (1996); V. Šrajer, T.-Y. Teng, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, Z. Ren, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, Science 274, 1726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schoenlein, R. W.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K.-J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shan, B.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, X. Zhang, and R. Lee, “Demonstration of a 0.54 picosecond x-ray streak camera,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Shank, C. V.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K.-J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Šrajer, V.

D. Bourgeois, T. Ursby, M. Wulff, C. Pradervand, A. Legrand, W. Schildkamp, S. Labouré, V. Šrajer, T. Y. Teng, M. Roth, and K. Moffat, J. Synchrotron Rad. 3, 65 (1996); V. Šrajer, T.-Y. Teng, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, Z. Ren, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, Science 274, 1726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Teng, T. Y.

D. Bourgeois, T. Ursby, M. Wulff, C. Pradervand, A. Legrand, W. Schildkamp, S. Labouré, V. Šrajer, T. Y. Teng, M. Roth, and K. Moffat, J. Synchrotron Rad. 3, 65 (1996); V. Šrajer, T.-Y. Teng, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, Z. Ren, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, Science 274, 1726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ursby, T.

D. Bourgeois, T. Ursby, M. Wulff, C. Pradervand, A. Legrand, W. Schildkamp, S. Labouré, V. Šrajer, T. Y. Teng, M. Roth, and K. Moffat, J. Synchrotron Rad. 3, 65 (1996); V. Šrajer, T.-Y. Teng, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, Z. Ren, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, Science 274, 1726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Volfbeyn, P.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K.-J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, X. Zhang, and R. Lee, “Demonstration of a 0.54 picosecond x-ray streak camera,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Wulff, M.

D. Bourgeois, T. Ursby, M. Wulff, C. Pradervand, A. Legrand, W. Schildkamp, S. Labouré, V. Šrajer, T. Y. Teng, M. Roth, and K. Moffat, J. Synchrotron Rad. 3, 65 (1996); V. Šrajer, T.-Y. Teng, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, Z. Ren, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, Science 274, 1726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, X. Zhang, and R. Lee, “Demonstration of a 0.54 picosecond x-ray streak camera,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

Zhou, J.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zolotorev, M.

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K.-J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, and X. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Knox and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 623 (1980); R. Yen, M. M. Downey, C. V. Shank, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 718 (1984); A. Maksimchuk, M. Kim, J. Workman, G. Korn, J. Squier, D. Du, D. Umstadter, and M. Bouvier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Synchrotron Rad. (1)

D. Bourgeois, T. Ursby, M. Wulff, C. Pradervand, A. Legrand, W. Schildkamp, S. Labouré, V. Šrajer, T. Y. Teng, M. Roth, and K. Moffat, J. Synchrotron Rad. 3, 65 (1996); V. Šrajer, T.-Y. Teng, T. Ursby, C. Pradervand, Z. Ren, S.-I. Adachi, W. Schildkamp, D. Bourgeois, M. Wulff, and K. Moffat, Science 274, 1726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. W. Schoenlein, W. P. Leemans, A. H. Chin, P. Volfbeyn, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, M. Zolotorev, K.-J. Kim, S. Chattopadhyay, and C. V. Shank, Science 274, 236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, X. Liu, B. Shan, J. Liu, L. Niu, M. Gong, X. Zhang, and R. Lee, “Demonstration of a 0.54 picosecond x-ray streak camera,” Proc. SPIE (to be published).

R. Keller, T. Renner, and D. J. Mussiletti, presented at the Seventh Beam Instrumentation Workshop, Argonne, Ill., May 6–9, 1996.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup showing the x-ray radiation from the synchrotron, two Si crystals, laser and triggering systems, and the streak-camera detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal profile of a single ALS pulse, measured with the Kentech streak camera.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal response of the ultrafast, photoconductive-switch-triggered streak camera was measured to be 2  ps when 5000 pulses were averaged.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pulse duration of the ALS was measured to be 70  ps with a streak camera operating in an averaging mode. Both the camera output and a lineout of these data are shown.

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