Abstract

Using a low-coherence Michelson interferometer, we measure two-dimensional images of optical birefringence in bovine tendon as a function of depth. Polarization-sensitive detection of the signal formed by interference of backscattered light from the sample and a mirror in the reference arm give the optical phase delay between light that is propagating along the fast and slow axes of the birefringent tendon. Images showing the change in birefringence in response to laser irradiation are presented. The technique permits rapid noncontact investigation of tissue structural properties through two-dimensional imaging of birefringence.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Yodh and B. Chance, Phys. Today 48(3), 34 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 19, 740 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. W. Denk, D. W. Piston, and W. W. Webb, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 445.
    [Crossref]
  4. L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and X. Zhao, Opt. Lett. 20, 629 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Kempe, M. Larionov, D. Zaslavsky, and A. Z. Genack, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1151 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Thomsen, Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 825 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 20, 2258 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  12. Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 64 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. D. J. Maitland and J. T. Walsh, “Quantitative measurements of linear birefringence during the heating of native collagen,” Lasers Surg. Med. (to be published); D. J. Maitland, “Dynamic measurements of tissue birefringence: theory and experiments,” Ph.D. dissertation (Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., 1995).
  14. E. P. Chang, D. A. Keedy, and C. W. Chien, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 343, 615 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. E. J. Naylor, Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 94, 83 (1953).

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

1994 (1)

1992 (2)

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

S. Thomsen, Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 825 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

E. P. Chang, D. A. Keedy, and C. W. Chien, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 343, 615 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1953 (1)

E. J. Naylor, Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 94, 83 (1953).

Alfano, R. R.

Baney, D. M.

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

Chance, B.

A. Yodh and B. Chance, Phys. Today 48(3), 34 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chang, E. P.

E. P. Chang, D. A. Keedy, and C. W. Chien, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 343, 615 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Chien, C. W.

E. P. Chang, D. A. Keedy, and C. W. Chien, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 343, 615 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dave, D.

Denk, W.

W. Denk, D. W. Piston, and W. W. Webb, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 445.
[Crossref]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 20, 2258 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genack, A. Z.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 20, 2258 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Keedy, D. A.

E. P. Chang, D. A. Keedy, and C. W. Chien, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 343, 615 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kempe, M.

Larionov, M.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Maitland, D. J.

D. J. Maitland and J. T. Walsh, “Quantitative measurements of linear birefringence during the heating of native collagen,” Lasers Surg. Med. (to be published); D. J. Maitland, “Dynamic measurements of tissue birefringence: theory and experiments,” Ph.D. dissertation (Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., 1995).

Milner, T. E.

Naylor, E. J.

E. J. Naylor, Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 94, 83 (1953).

Nelson, J. S.

Piston, D. W.

W. Denk, D. W. Piston, and W. W. Webb, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 445.
[Crossref]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorin, W. V.

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404 (1992).
[Crossref]

Southern, J. F.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Thomsen, S.

S. Thomsen, Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 825 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

D. J. Maitland and J. T. Walsh, “Quantitative measurements of linear birefringence during the heating of native collagen,” Lasers Surg. Med. (to be published); D. J. Maitland, “Dynamic measurements of tissue birefringence: theory and experiments,” Ph.D. dissertation (Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., 1995).

Wang, L.

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, D. W. Piston, and W. W. Webb, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 445.
[Crossref]

Yodh, A.

A. Yodh and B. Chance, Phys. Today 48(3), 34 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yoo, K. M.

Zaslavsky, D.

Zhao, X.

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

E. P. Chang, D. A. Keedy, and C. W. Chien, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 343, 615 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

S. Thomsen, Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 825 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

A. Yodh and B. Chance, Phys. Today 48(3), 34 (1995).
[Crossref]

Q. J. Microsc. Sci. (1)

E. J. Naylor, Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 94, 83 (1953).

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

W. Denk, D. W. Piston, and W. W. Webb, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 445.
[Crossref]

D. J. Maitland and J. T. Walsh, “Quantitative measurements of linear birefringence during the heating of native collagen,” Lasers Surg. Med. (to be published); D. J. Maitland, “Dynamic measurements of tissue birefringence: theory and experiments,” Ph.D. dissertation (Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the polarization-sensitive OCT setup. SLD, superluminescent diode, 0.8-mW output power, central wavelength λ0=862  nm, spectral FWHM Δλ=21  nm =λ02Ωln 2/πc; P, polarizer; BS, beam splitter; QWP’s, quarter-wave plates; NDF, neutral-density filter; L, lens. 2D images are formed by longitudinal movement of the sample with constant velocity v=1  mm/s (z direction), repeated after each 10-µm lateral displacement (x direction).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of fresh bovine tendon 1  mm wide by 700  µm deep. Each pixel represents a 10 µm×10 µm area. The dynamic range of the system was 48  dB. We generated false color birefringence images a and b by computing sgnIHz-IVz10 logIHz-IVz. Noise is represented by deep blue or deep red. The color scale at the right gives the magnitude of signals. The banded structure, indicative of the birefringence, is clearly visible. a, Birefringence image of fresh bovine tendon. b, Birefringence image of bovine tendon following exposure to three consecutive 1-J 150-µs laser pulses (λ=1.32 µm) spaced by 10  ms, incident from the upper left at 35° with respect to the surface normal. The beam diameter was 2  mm. Initial surface temperature after laser irradiation was 77 °C, dropping to 61 °C after 0.25  s. c, Total backscattered intensity image of bovine tendon, constructed from the same measurement shown in b to demonstrate differences from the polarization-sensitive image. We generated a false color image by computing 10 logIHz+IVz. The color scale to the right gives the magnitude of the signals in c.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I=Ir+Is+2 ReΨr*t, zr·Ψst, zs,
ReΨr*t, zr·Ψst, zs=AH+AV, AHsin2Θ·tcos2k0Δzexp-ΩΔz/c2cosk0zδ, AVcos2Θ·tcos2k0Δz+2α×exp-ΩΔz/c2sink0zδ,
IHzcos2k0zδ, IVzsin2k0zδ.

Metrics