Abstract

Polymer films doped with 2-(5,5-dimethyl-3-styryl-cyclohex-2-enylidene)-malononitrile chromophore and various sensitizers have been prepared and characterized. The material exhibits high sensitivity in the red region (S=0.26 cm2/J at λ=633 nm), a large dynamic range Δn=-0.05, and large transient two-beam coupling gain G=110 cm-1. Self-diffraction effects, such as energy and phase coupling, and photoinduced scattering are studied.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Solymar and D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, London, 1981), p. 299.
  2. J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. J. Tomlinson and E. A. Chandross, Adv. Photochem. 12, 201 (1980).
  4. R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Lemke, Chem. Ber. 103, 1894 (1970) (in German).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Vol. 61, p. 53.
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    [CrossRef]
  8. W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Opt. 14, 2456 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, and S. G. Odulov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 25, 1109 (1980).
  10. M. Horowitz and B. Fischer, Opt. Lett. 17, 1082 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1980 (2)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, and S. G. Odulov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 25, 1109 (1980).

W. J. Tomlinson and E. A. Chandross, Adv. Photochem. 12, 201 (1980).

1975 (1)

1970 (1)

R. Lemke, Chem. Ber. 103, 1894 (1970) (in German).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bashaw, M. C.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernal, M.-P.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chandross, E. A.

W. J. Tomlinson and E. A. Chandross, Adv. Photochem. 12, 201 (1980).

Cooke, D. J.

L. Solymar and D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, London, 1981), p. 299.

Coufal, H.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeVoe, R. G.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

Geletneky, C.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grygier, R. K.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Vol. 61, p. 53.

Heanue, J. F.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hesselink, L.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffnagle, J. A.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

Huignard, J.-P.

P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Vol. 61, p. 53.

Jefferson, C. M.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, and S. G. Odulov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 25, 1109 (1980).

Lemke, R.

R. Lemke, Chem. Ber. 103, 1894 (1970) (in German).
[CrossRef]

Lundquist, P. M.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R. M.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, and S. G. Odulov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 25, 1109 (1980).

Moylan, C. R.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Odulov, S. G.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, and S. G. Odulov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 25, 1109 (1980).

Shelby, R. M.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sincerbox, G. T.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Solymar, L.

L. Solymar and D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, London, 1981), p. 299.

Tomlinson, W. J.

W. J. Tomlinson and E. A. Chandross, Adv. Photochem. 12, 201 (1980).

W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Opt. 14, 2456 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Twieg, R. J.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wortmann, R.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Photochem. (1)

W. J. Tomlinson and E. A. Chandross, Adv. Photochem. 12, 201 (1980).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, and G. T. Sincerbox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Ber. (1)

R. Lemke, Chem. Ber. 103, 1894 (1970) (in German).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, and S. G. Odulov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 25, 1109 (1980).

Other (2)

L. Solymar and D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, London, 1981), p. 299.

P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Vol. 61, p. 53.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra for 120-µm-thick polymer samples sensitized with C60, with tetraphenylporphine, and without any sensitizer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency dynamics during hologram recording in the sample sensitized with tetraphenylporphine. (Intensity I=200 mW/cm2, spatial frequency K=105 cm-1.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-beam amplification dynamics for different ratios between writing beams (intensity I=100 mW/cm2, spatial frequency K=105 cm-1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photoinduced scattering behind the sample while it is illuminated by (a) two beams simultaneously and (b) one beam after prolonged exposure to another one. The bright spots are the transmitted beams.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sensitivity and Transmittance of Samples Doped with Various Sensitizers

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