Abstract

A numerical simulation of the switching characteristics of a polarization multiplexed nonlinear-optical loop mirror demultiplexer is presented and compared with experiment. The model assumes that the optical fiber that composes the loop has a randomly varying birefringence, that the signal and the control pulses have the same frequency, and that these pulses are nearly solitons. Factors that affect the shape and the width of the switching window curve are discussed. A phase-dependent modulation of the switching window curve, which is due to incomplete averaging of the light polarization state, is observed both experimentally and numerically. Models in which the randomness is neglected are not able to describe this modulation adequately.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 28, 1864 (1992); J. D. Moores, K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Lett. 16, 138 (1991); N. A. Whitaker, H. Avromopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, R. E. Lamarche, D. J. Giovanni, and H. M. Presby, Opt. Lett. 16, 1838 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. G. R. Williams, M. Vaziri, K. H. Ahn, B. C. Barnett, M. N. Islam, K. O. Hill, and B. Malo, Opt. Lett. 20, 1671 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. L. Dennis, M. F. Arend, and I. N. Dulling, Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 906 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. R. Menyuk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 174 (1987); G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), Chap. 7.
    [Crossref]
  5. S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992); P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, and H. H. Chen, Opt. Lett. 16, 1231 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. R. Menyuk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 392 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. R. Menyuk and P. K. Wai, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1288 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Elipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).
  9. S. C. Rashleigh, J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 312 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 917 (1994).
    [Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. L. Dennis, M. F. Arend, and I. N. Dulling, Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 906 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

C. R. Menyuk and P. K. Wai, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1288 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 917 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992); P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, and H. H. Chen, Opt. Lett. 16, 1231 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 28, 1864 (1992); J. D. Moores, K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Lett. 16, 138 (1991); N. A. Whitaker, H. Avromopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, R. E. Lamarche, D. J. Giovanni, and H. M. Presby, Opt. Lett. 16, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

C. R. Menyuk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 174 (1987); G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), Chap. 7.
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

S. C. Rashleigh, J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 312 (1983).
[Crossref]

Ahn, K. H.

Arend, M. F.

M. L. Dennis, M. F. Arend, and I. N. Dulling, Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 906 (1996).
[Crossref]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Elipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

Barnett, B. C.

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Elipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

Bergano, N. S.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992); P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, and H. H. Chen, Opt. Lett. 16, 1231 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dennis, M. L.

M. L. Dennis, M. F. Arend, and I. N. Dulling, Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 906 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dulling, I. N.

M. L. Dennis, M. F. Arend, and I. N. Dulling, Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 906 (1996).
[Crossref]

Evangelides, S. G.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992); P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, and H. H. Chen, Opt. Lett. 16, 1231 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favin, D. L.

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 917 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gordon, J. P.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992); P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, and H. H. Chen, Opt. Lett. 16, 1231 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, K. O.

Islam, M. N.

Kawanishi, S.

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 28, 1864 (1992); J. D. Moores, K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Lett. 16, 138 (1991); N. A. Whitaker, H. Avromopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, R. E. Lamarche, D. J. Giovanni, and H. M. Presby, Opt. Lett. 16, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malo, B.

Menyuk, C. R.

C. R. Menyuk and P. K. Wai, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1288 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. R. Menyuk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 392 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. R. Menyuk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 174 (1987); G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), Chap. 7.
[Crossref]

Mollenauer, L. F.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992); P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, and H. H. Chen, Opt. Lett. 16, 1231 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morioka, T.

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 28, 1864 (1992); J. D. Moores, K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Lett. 16, 138 (1991); N. A. Whitaker, H. Avromopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, R. E. Lamarche, D. J. Giovanni, and H. M. Presby, Opt. Lett. 16, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 917 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rashleigh, S. C.

S. C. Rashleigh, J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 312 (1983).
[Crossref]

Saruwatari, M.

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 28, 1864 (1992); J. D. Moores, K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Lett. 16, 138 (1991); N. A. Whitaker, H. Avromopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, R. E. Lamarche, D. J. Giovanni, and H. M. Presby, Opt. Lett. 16, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takara, H.

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 28, 1864 (1992); J. D. Moores, K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Lett. 16, 138 (1991); N. A. Whitaker, H. Avromopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, R. E. Lamarche, D. J. Giovanni, and H. M. Presby, Opt. Lett. 16, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uchiyama, K.

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 28, 1864 (1992); J. D. Moores, K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Lett. 16, 138 (1991); N. A. Whitaker, H. Avromopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, R. E. Lamarche, D. J. Giovanni, and H. M. Presby, Opt. Lett. 16, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vaziri, M.

Wai, P. K.

Williams, G. R.

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 28, 1864 (1992); J. D. Moores, K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Lett. 16, 138 (1991); N. A. Whitaker, H. Avromopoulos, P. M. W. French, M. C. Gabriel, R. E. Lamarche, D. J. Giovanni, and H. M. Presby, Opt. Lett. 16, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. R. Menyuk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 174 (1987); G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), Chap. 7.
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992); P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, and H. H. Chen, Opt. Lett. 16, 1231 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Rashleigh, J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 312 (1983).
[Crossref]

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 917 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. L. Dennis, M. F. Arend, and I. N. Dulling, Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 906 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Elipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of the demultiplexer: PBS1, PBS2, polarization beam splitters; SI, signal-in port; SO, signal-out port; CI, control-in port; CO, control-out port; WP, wave plate (or polarization controller).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Plot of the power spectrum of the signal switched out of the demultiplexer. Sidebands are generated by the interference between the dispersive wave and the soliton component. (b) Plot of the experimental and the simulated switching windows, i.e., the transmitted power, T, as a function of time delay between control pulse and signal pulse. The simulation assumes a fixed phase difference between control and signal pulses. The arrows indicate the location of the plots in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detailed view of Fig. 2(b). (a), (b), (c) Experimental traces at time delays of -0.6, 0, and 0.5 ps, respectively. (d), (e), (f) The corresponding responding simulations. The x axis has been converted into a phase delay for these plots.

Equations (2)

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iuξ+δus+β2u+122us2+iα2u=-u2+23v2u-13v2u*, ivξ-δvs-β2v+122vs2+iα2v=-v2+23u2v-13u2v*,
γ=12 arctan-ucvc cos φ, ψ=2 arctan-ucvc sin φ sin 2γ.

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