Abstract

A single-beam gradient-force optical trap for dielectric particles, which relies solely on the radiation pressure force of a TEM00-mode laser light, is demonstrated in air for what is believed to be the first time. It was observed that micrometer-sized glass spheres with a refractive index of n=1.45 remained trapped in the focus region for more than 30  min, and we could transfer them three dimensionally by moving the beam focus and the microscope stage. A laser power of 40  mW was sufficient to trap a 5-µm-diameter glass sphere. The present method has several distinct advantages over the conventional optical levitation method.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1996 (3)

R. Omori, T. Kobayashi, S. Miyamoto, and A. Suzuki, Opt. Rev. 3, 11 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Omori, K. Sawada, T. Kobayashi, and A. Suzuki, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 33, 956 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Ren, G. Gréhan, and G. Gouesbet, Appl. Opt. 35, 2702 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

W. H. Wright, G. J. Sonek, and M. W. Bern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

R. Gussgard, T. Lindmo, and I. Brevik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1922 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, Biophys. J. 61, 569 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3829 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. C. B. Schut, G. Hesselink, B. G. Grooth, and J. Greve, Cytometry 12, 479 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

J. P. Barton and D. R. Alexander, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2800 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

S. De Nicola, A. Finizo, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, S. Martellucci, J. Quartieri, F. Bloisi, and L. Vicari, Appl. Phys. B 47, 247 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Gouesbet, B. Maheu, and G. Gréhan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1427 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

1979 (1)

L. W. Davis, Phys. Rev. A 19, 1177 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 21, 189 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Roosen and C. Imbert, Phys. Lett. A 59, 6 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, D. R.

J. P. Barton and D. R. Alexander, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2800 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, Biophys. J. 61, 569 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. P.

J. P. Barton and D. R. Alexander, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2800 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bern, M. W.

W. H. Wright, G. J. Sonek, and M. W. Bern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Bloisi, F.

S. De Nicola, A. Finizo, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, S. Martellucci, J. Quartieri, F. Bloisi, and L. Vicari, Appl. Phys. B 47, 247 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brevik, I.

R. Gussgard, T. Lindmo, and I. Brevik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1922 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Davis, L. W.

L. W. Davis, Phys. Rev. A 19, 1177 (1979).
[CrossRef]

De Nicola, S.

S. De Nicola, A. Finizo, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, S. Martellucci, J. Quartieri, F. Bloisi, and L. Vicari, Appl. Phys. B 47, 247 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Finizo, A.

S. De Nicola, A. Finizo, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, S. Martellucci, J. Quartieri, F. Bloisi, and L. Vicari, Appl. Phys. B 47, 247 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gouesbet, G.

Gréhan, G.

Greve, J.

T. C. B. Schut, G. Hesselink, B. G. Grooth, and J. Greve, Cytometry 12, 479 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grooth, B. G.

T. C. B. Schut, G. Hesselink, B. G. Grooth, and J. Greve, Cytometry 12, 479 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gussgard, R.

R. Gussgard, T. Lindmo, and I. Brevik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1922 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, G.

T. C. B. Schut, G. Hesselink, B. G. Grooth, and J. Greve, Cytometry 12, 479 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Imbert, C.

G. Roosen and C. Imbert, Phys. Lett. A 59, 6 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, W.

Kitamura, N.

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3829 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

R. Omori, T. Kobayashi, S. Miyamoto, and A. Suzuki, Opt. Rev. 3, 11 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Omori, K. Sawada, T. Kobayashi, and A. Suzuki, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 33, 956 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koshioka, M.

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3829 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lindmo, T.

R. Gussgard, T. Lindmo, and I. Brevik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1922 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maheu, B.

Martellucci, S.

S. De Nicola, A. Finizo, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, S. Martellucci, J. Quartieri, F. Bloisi, and L. Vicari, Appl. Phys. B 47, 247 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Masuhara, H.

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3829 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3829 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, S.

R. Omori, T. Kobayashi, S. Miyamoto, and A. Suzuki, Opt. Rev. 3, 11 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mormile, P.

S. De Nicola, A. Finizo, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, S. Martellucci, J. Quartieri, F. Bloisi, and L. Vicari, Appl. Phys. B 47, 247 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Omori, R.

R. Omori, K. Sawada, T. Kobayashi, and A. Suzuki, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 33, 956 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Omori, T. Kobayashi, S. Miyamoto, and A. Suzuki, Opt. Rev. 3, 11 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pierattini, G.

S. De Nicola, A. Finizo, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, S. Martellucci, J. Quartieri, F. Bloisi, and L. Vicari, Appl. Phys. B 47, 247 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Quartieri, J.

S. De Nicola, A. Finizo, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, S. Martellucci, J. Quartieri, F. Bloisi, and L. Vicari, Appl. Phys. B 47, 247 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ren, K. F.

Roosen, G.

G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 21, 189 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. Roosen and C. Imbert, Phys. Lett. A 59, 6 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3829 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sawada, K.

R. Omori, K. Sawada, T. Kobayashi, and A. Suzuki, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 33, 956 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schaub, S. A.

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schut, T. C. B.

T. C. B. Schut, G. Hesselink, B. G. Grooth, and J. Greve, Cytometry 12, 479 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sonek, G. J.

W. H. Wright, G. J. Sonek, and M. W. Berns, Appl. Opt. 33, 1735 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Wright, G. J. Sonek, and M. W. Bern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

R. Omori, K. Sawada, T. Kobayashi, and A. Suzuki, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 33, 956 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Omori, T. Kobayashi, S. Miyamoto, and A. Suzuki, Opt. Rev. 3, 11 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thurn, R.

Vicari, L.

S. De Nicola, A. Finizo, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, S. Martellucci, J. Quartieri, F. Bloisi, and L. Vicari, Appl. Phys. B 47, 247 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wright, W. H.

W. H. Wright, G. J. Sonek, and M. W. Berns, Appl. Opt. 33, 1735 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Wright, G. J. Sonek, and M. W. Bern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. De Nicola, A. Finizo, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, S. Martellucci, J. Quartieri, F. Bloisi, and L. Vicari, Appl. Phys. B 47, 247 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

W. H. Wright, G. J. Sonek, and M. W. Bern, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

A. Ashkin, Biophys. J. 61, 569 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytometry (1)

T. C. B. Schut, G. Hesselink, B. G. Grooth, and J. Greve, Cytometry 12, 479 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. P. Barton and D. R. Alexander, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2800 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Misawa, M. Koshioka, K. Sasaki, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3829 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. Omori, K. Sawada, T. Kobayashi, and A. Suzuki, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 33, 956 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

R. Gussgard, T. Lindmo, and I. Brevik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1922 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 21, 189 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

R. Omori, T. Kobayashi, S. Miyamoto, and A. Suzuki, Opt. Rev. 3, 11 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

G. Roosen and C. Imbert, Phys. Lett. A 59, 6 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. W. Davis, Phys. Rev. A 19, 1177 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for a single-beam gradient-force optical trap in air. VTR, videotape recorder; ND, neutral density.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photographs of the single-beam gradient-force optical trap of a glass sphere of d = 5.0   µ m in air. A trapping laser beam is irradiated perpendicularly to the plane of the photographs. (a) Trapped glass sphere indicated by the arrow. (b) The same trapped sphere, lifted by a vertical movement of the focus of the beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of the horizontal transfer of a trapped glass sphere of d = 3.0   µ m in air. A trapping laser beam is irradiated perpendicularly to the plane of the photographs. (a) Trapped glass sphere indicated by the arrow. (b) The same trapped sphere, which is stable despite horizontal movement of the microscope stage. The direction of the stage movement is indicated by the arrow.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q = radiation pressure exerted on a particle radiation pressure of an incident beam = F / n 1 P / c ,
Q z n 1 P c = 4 3 π r 3 ρ m - ρ s g ,

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