Abstract

We show that high-temperature reduction in a CO–CO2 atmosphere increases the photorefractive sensitivity of KNbO3:Rh at 860  nm by 4 orders of magnitude compared with that of the as-grown crystal. The effective trap density is increased by a factor of 3, and the photoconductivity by a factor of 30, and the photorefractive response at a grating spacing of 0.15  µm is accelerated by a factor of 400. The grating buildup time at a grating spacing of 0.7  µm and an intensity of 1 W cm-2 is 0.5  s, a value comparable with that of as-grown KNbO3:Fe at visible wavelengths. The optical and photorefractive parameters of Rh-doped KNbO3 subjected to reduction treatment are characterized for wavelengths of 0.48–1.064  µm.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. A. Wechsler, M. B. Klein, C. C. Nelson, and R. N. Schwartz, Opt. Lett. 19, 356 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Kaczmarek and R. W. Eason, Opt. Lett. 20, 1850 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Brüllisauer, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and Ch. Bruchal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2544 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. MacCormack, J. Feinberg, and M. H. Garrett, Opt. Lett. 19, 120 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, N. Sonderer, C. Beyeler, S. Krucker, J. Seglins, H. Wuëst, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5640 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, I. Liakatas, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2657 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I: Fundamental Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Krummins and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. 19, 199 (1980).
  10. C. Medrano, E. Voit, P. Amrhein, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4668 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, M. Ewart, H. Wüest, and P. Günter, Opt. Eng. 34, 1930 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Wechsler and M. Klein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1711 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Günter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Zgonik, R. Schlesser, I. Biaggio, E. Voit, J. Tscherry, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1287 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Bernasconi, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2651 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. B. Klein and G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438 (1976).
  18. G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3363 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. P. Strohkendl, J. M. C. Jonathan, and R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 11, 312 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Zgonik, K. Nakagawa, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1416 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Montemezzani and P. Günter, in Notions and Perspectives of Nonlinear Optics, O. Keller, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 370–427.

1996 (1)

1995 (5)

1994 (3)

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, N. Sonderer, C. Beyeler, S. Krucker, J. Seglins, H. Wuëst, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. MacCormack, J. Feinberg, and M. H. Garrett, Opt. Lett. 19, 120 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Wechsler, M. B. Klein, C. C. Nelson, and R. N. Schwartz, Opt. Lett. 19, 356 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

M. Zgonik, R. Schlesser, I. Biaggio, E. Voit, J. Tscherry, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

C. Medrano, E. Voit, P. Amrhein, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4668 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Wechsler and M. Klein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1711 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1985 (1)

M. B. Klein and G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

P. Günter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Krummins and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. 19, 199 (1980).

1976 (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438 (1976).

Amrhein, P.

C. Medrano, E. Voit, P. Amrhein, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4668 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, L.

Bernasconi, P.

P. Bernasconi, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2651 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Beyeler, C.

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, N. Sonderer, C. Beyeler, S. Krucker, J. Seglins, H. Wuëst, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

M. Zgonik, R. Schlesser, I. Biaggio, E. Voit, J. Tscherry, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bruchal, Ch.

Brüllisauer, S.

Eason, R. W.

M. Kaczmarek and R. W. Eason, Opt. Lett. 20, 1850 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ewart, M.

M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, M. Ewart, H. Wüest, and P. Günter, Opt. Eng. 34, 1930 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Fluck, D.

Garrett, M. H.

S. MacCormack, J. Feinberg, and M. H. Garrett, Opt. Lett. 19, 120 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, I. Liakatas, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Brüllisauer, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and Ch. Bruchal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2544 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Zgonik, K. Nakagawa, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, M. Ewart, H. Wüest, and P. Günter, Opt. Eng. 34, 1930 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Bernasconi, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2651 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, N. Sonderer, C. Beyeler, S. Krucker, J. Seglins, H. Wuëst, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Zgonik, R. Schlesser, I. Biaggio, E. Voit, J. Tscherry, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Medrano, E. Voit, P. Amrhein, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4668 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Krummins and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. 19, 199 (1980).

G. Montemezzani and P. Günter, in Notions and Perspectives of Nonlinear Optics, O. Keller, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 370–427.

Hellwarth, R. W.

Hribek, P.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jonathan, J. M. C.

Kaczmarek, M.

Klein, M.

Klein, M. B.

Krucker, S.

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, N. Sonderer, C. Beyeler, S. Krucker, J. Seglins, H. Wuëst, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krummins, A.

A. Krummins and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. 19, 199 (1980).

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438 (1976).

Liakatas, I.

MacCormack, S.

Medrano, C.

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, I. Liakatas, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, M. Ewart, H. Wüest, and P. Günter, Opt. Eng. 34, 1930 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, N. Sonderer, C. Beyeler, S. Krucker, J. Seglins, H. Wuëst, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Medrano, E. Voit, P. Amrhein, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4668 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

G. Montemezzani and P. Günter, in Notions and Perspectives of Nonlinear Optics, O. Keller, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 370–427.

Nakagawa, K.

Nelson, C. C.

Ross, G. W.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rytz, D.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schlesser, R.

M. Zgonik, R. Schlesser, I. Biaggio, E. Voit, J. Tscherry, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, R. N.

Seglins, J.

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, N. Sonderer, C. Beyeler, S. Krucker, J. Seglins, H. Wuëst, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sonderer, N.

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, N. Sonderer, C. Beyeler, S. Krucker, J. Seglins, H. Wuëst, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Strohkendl, F. P.

Tscherry, J.

M. Zgonik, R. Schlesser, I. Biaggio, E. Voit, J. Tscherry, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3363 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Klein and G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Voit, E.

M. Zgonik, R. Schlesser, I. Biaggio, E. Voit, J. Tscherry, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Medrano, E. Voit, P. Amrhein, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4668 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wechsler, B.

Wechsler, B. A.

Wuëst, H.

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, N. Sonderer, C. Beyeler, S. Krucker, J. Seglins, H. Wuëst, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wüest, H.

M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, M. Ewart, H. Wüest, and P. Günter, Opt. Eng. 34, 1930 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, I. Liakatas, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Zgonik, K. Nakagawa, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, M. Ewart, H. Wüest, and P. Günter, Opt. Eng. 34, 1930 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Bernasconi, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2651 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, N. Sonderer, C. Beyeler, S. Krucker, J. Seglins, H. Wuëst, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Zgonik, R. Schlesser, I. Biaggio, E. Voit, J. Tscherry, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Krummins and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. 19, 199 (1980).

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

C. Medrano, E. Voit, P. Amrhein, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4668 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, N. Sonderer, C. Beyeler, S. Krucker, J. Seglins, H. Wuëst, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Zgonik, R. Schlesser, I. Biaggio, E. Voit, J. Tscherry, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Bernasconi, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2651 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Klein and G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4901 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3363 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Zgonik, C. Medrano, M. Ewart, H. Wüest, and P. Günter, Opt. Eng. 34, 1930 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rep. (1)

P. Günter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438 (1976).

Other (2)

P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I: Fundamental Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Montemezzani and P. Günter, in Notions and Perspectives of Nonlinear Optics, O. Keller, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 370–427.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption in reduced as-grown KNbO3:Rh as functions of photon energy Eph and wavelength λ. Reduction increases the absorption for visible light but decreases it at near-IR wavelengths.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Absorption Constants in Reduced and As-Grown KNBO3:Rh (0.3%)a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Characteristics of KNbO3a

Equations (1)

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Neff*=Γλ0effn3reffeΛ,

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