Abstract

Uniform upconversion in erbium-doped silicate glasses is investigated as a function of glass composition, concentration, and fabrication method. Comparisons of upconversion coefficients are made among soda lime silicate and aluminosilicate bulk glasses and soda lime silicate waveguides. Comparisons are also made with studies performed by other researchers. The results indicate that both the composition and the preparation method of the glass affect the value of the upconversion coefficient, with as much as a factor-of-4 variation observed at fixed Er3+ concentration. Values of the upconversion coefficient are found to be consistent with the Förster–Dexter microscopic model.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. J. F. Digonnet, M. K. Davis, and R. H. Pantel, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 48 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, and H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 19, 347 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, and D. B. Ostrowsky, Opt. Lett. 20, 2487 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Nilsson, P. Blixt, B. Jaskorzynska, and J. Babonas, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 341 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Di Pasquale and M. Federighi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1858 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Federighi and F. Di Pasquale, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 303 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. E. Román, M. Hempstead, C. Ye, S. Nouh, P. Camy, P. Laborde, and C. Lerminiaux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 470 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Snoeks, G. N. van den Hoven, A. Polman, B. Henrikson, M. B. J. Diemer, and F. Priolo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1468 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Masuda, A. Takada, and K. Aida, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1789 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Nishi, K. Nakagawa, Y. Ohishi, and S. Takahashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L177 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Förster, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 2, 55 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. L. Dexter, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 126, 1962 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (7)

J. E. Román, M. Hempstead, C. Ye, S. Nouh, P. Camy, P. Laborde, and C. Lerminiaux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsson, P. Blixt, B. Jaskorzynska, and J. Babonas, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 341 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Di Pasquale and M. Federighi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1858 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Federighi and F. Di Pasquale, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 303 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, G. N. van den Hoven, A. Polman, B. Henrikson, M. B. J. Diemer, and F. Priolo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1468 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, and D. B. Ostrowsky, Opt. Lett. 20, 2487 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

M. J. F. Digonnet, M. K. Davis, and R. H. Pantel, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, and H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 19, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

H. Masuda, A. Takada, and K. Aida, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1789 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishi, K. Nakagawa, Y. Ohishi, and S. Takahashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L177 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1962 (3)

D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 126, 1962 (1962).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

D. L. Dexter, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

T. Förster, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 2, 55 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Aida, K.

H. Masuda, A. Takada, and K. Aida, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1789 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Babonas, J.

J. Nilsson, P. Blixt, B. Jaskorzynska, and J. Babonas, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 341 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J.-F.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Blixt, P.

J. Nilsson, P. Blixt, B. Jaskorzynska, and J. Babonas, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 341 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Camy, P.

J. E. Román, M. Hempstead, C. Ye, S. Nouh, P. Camy, P. Laborde, and C. Lerminiaux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. K.

M. J. F. Digonnet, M. K. Davis, and R. H. Pantel, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Delevaque, E.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 126, 1962 (1962).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dexter, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Di Pasquale, F.

F. Di Pasquale and M. Federighi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1858 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Federighi and F. Di Pasquale, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 303 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Diemer, M. B. J.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, and H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 19, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. F. Digonnet, M. K. Davis, and R. H. Pantel, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

Federighi, M.

F. Di Pasquale and M. Federighi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1858 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Federighi and F. Di Pasquale, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 303 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Förster, T.

T. Förster, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 2, 55 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Georges, T.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hempstead, M.

J. E. Román, M. Hempstead, C. Ye, S. Nouh, P. Camy, P. Laborde, and C. Lerminiaux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Henrikson, B.

Honkanen, S.

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jaskorzynska, B.

J. Nilsson, P. Blixt, B. Jaskorzynska, and J. Babonas, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 341 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Laborde, P.

J. E. Román, M. Hempstead, C. Ye, S. Nouh, P. Camy, P. Laborde, and C. Lerminiaux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lamouler, P.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lerminiaux, C.

J. E. Román, M. Hempstead, C. Ye, S. Nouh, P. Camy, P. Laborde, and C. Lerminiaux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

H. Masuda, A. Takada, and K. Aida, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1789 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maurice, E.

Miniscalco, W. J.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Monnom, G.

Najafi, S. I.

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

T. Nishi, K. Nakagawa, Y. Ohishi, and S. Takahashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L177 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

J. Nilsson, P. Blixt, B. Jaskorzynska, and J. Babonas, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 341 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, T.

T. Nishi, K. Nakagawa, Y. Ohishi, and S. Takahashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L177 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nouh, S.

J. E. Román, M. Hempstead, C. Ye, S. Nouh, P. Camy, P. Laborde, and C. Lerminiaux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

T. Nishi, K. Nakagawa, Y. Ohishi, and S. Takahashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L177 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuki, T.

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

Pantel, R. H.

M. J. F. Digonnet, M. K. Davis, and R. H. Pantel, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, G. N. van den Hoven, A. Polman, B. Henrikson, M. B. J. Diemer, and F. Priolo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1468 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Román, J. E.

J. E. Román, M. Hempstead, C. Ye, S. Nouh, P. Camy, P. Laborde, and C. Lerminiaux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

Smit, M. K.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snoeks, E.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, G. N. van den Hoven, A. Polman, B. Henrikson, M. B. J. Diemer, and F. Priolo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1468 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takada, A.

H. Masuda, A. Takada, and K. Aida, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1789 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

T. Nishi, K. Nakagawa, Y. Ohishi, and S. Takahashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L177 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, C.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van den Hoven, G. N.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, G. N. van den Hoven, A. Polman, B. Henrikson, M. B. J. Diemer, and F. Priolo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1468 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van Uffelen, J. W. M.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wagener, J. L.

Wysocki, P. F.

Ye, C.

J. E. Román, M. Hempstead, C. Ye, S. Nouh, P. Camy, P. Laborde, and C. Lerminiaux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) (1)

T. Förster, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 2, 55 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. E. Román, M. Hempstead, C. Ye, S. Nouh, P. Camy, P. Laborde, and C. Lerminiaux, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 470 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Federighi and F. Di Pasquale, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 303 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, and J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

D. L. Dexter, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

H. Masuda, A. Takada, and K. Aida, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1789 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsson, P. Blixt, B. Jaskorzynska, and J. Babonas, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 341 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Di Pasquale and M. Federighi, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1858 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Nishi, K. Nakagawa, Y. Ohishi, and S. Takahashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L177 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

M. J. F. Digonnet, M. K. Davis, and R. H. Pantel, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (2)

D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 126, 1962 (1962).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured upconversion coefficients as a function of Er3+ concentration for a series of bulk soda lime-silicate samples, bulk aluminosilicate samples, and soda-lime-silicate waveguides. Open circles show results reported by other workers, as indicated by superscripts keyed to reference citations in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Förster–Dexter electronic prefactor Cel [from relation  (3) and Table  1], determined by Judd–Ofelt analysis as a function of measured upconversion coefficient for 0.4-mol. % Er2O3-doped bulk soda lime silicate and aluminosilicate samples. A linear fit to the data is shown as the solid line.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of Soda Lime Silicate and Aluminosilicate Bulk Glasses and Soda Lime Silicate Waveguidesa

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2Er3+I413/2Er3+I415/2+Er3+I49/2Er3++I415/2+Er3+I413/2.
dndt=γn-Cn2,
Cffn2R6S,

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