Abstract

An optical low-coherence reflectometer is presented that uses a fiber Michelson interferometer with a rotating cube to generate rapid depth scans at a high repetition rate. A folded optical path geometry allows the reference arm to scale up the scan range, scan speed, and scan repetitiveness. Thickness measurements with a repetitiveness of 384  Hz and a longitudinal scanning speed of 21  m/s in air over a range of 3  mm are demonstrated.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 28, 1553 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. L. Danielson and C. D. Whittenberg, Appl. Opt. 26, 2836 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida, and J. Noda, Appl. Opt. 26, 1603 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Kohlhaas, C. Frömchen, and E. Brinkmeyer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1493 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Takada, K. Yukimatsu, M. Kobayashi, and J. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 143 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, R. P. Salathé, R. P. Novàk, and H. H. Gilgen, Opt. Lett. 17, 4 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. M. Steinman, G. M. Haddad, A. A. Skavenski, and D. Wyman, Science 181, 810 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. M. Schmitt, Opt. Lett. 20, 419 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. M. Baney and W. V. Sorin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1109 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubavic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 1408 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Böhnke, Ph. Chavanne, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, “High precision, high speed measurement of excimer laser keratectomics with a new high speed reflectometer,” Ger. J. Ophthalmol (to be published).
  17. M. Böhnke, Ph. Chavanne, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, “Continuous corneal packometry with a new high speed reflectometry,” J. Refract. Surg. (to be published).
  18. Ph. Chavanne, P. Bonvin, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, presented at European Optical Society Conference on Applied Optics and Optoelectronics, York, UK, 1994.
  19. H. Bebie, in Ocular Blood Flow, H. J. Kaiser, J. Flammer, and P. Hendrickson, eds. (Kager, Basel, Switzerland, 1995), pp. 120–127.

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

J. M. Schmitt, Opt. Lett. 20, 419 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1992 (4)

1991 (3)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kohlhaas, C. Frömchen, and E. Brinkmeyer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1493 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, K. Yukimatsu, M. Kobayashi, and J. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1973 (1)

R. M. Steinman, G. M. Haddad, A. A. Skavenski, and D. Wyman, Science 181, 810 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baney, D. M.

D. M. Baney and W. V. Sorin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1109 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bebie, H.

H. Bebie, in Ocular Blood Flow, H. J. Kaiser, J. Flammer, and P. Hendrickson, eds. (Kager, Basel, Switzerland, 1995), pp. 120–127.

Böhnke, M.

M. Böhnke, Ph. Chavanne, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, “High precision, high speed measurement of excimer laser keratectomics with a new high speed reflectometer,” Ger. J. Ophthalmol (to be published).

M. Böhnke, Ph. Chavanne, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, “Continuous corneal packometry with a new high speed reflectometry,” J. Refract. Surg. (to be published).

Bonvin, P.

Ph. Chavanne, P. Bonvin, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, presented at European Optical Society Conference on Applied Optics and Optoelectronics, York, UK, 1994.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Brinkmeyer, E.

A. Kohlhaas, C. Frömchen, and E. Brinkmeyer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1493 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chavanne, Ph.

M. Böhnke, Ph. Chavanne, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, “High precision, high speed measurement of excimer laser keratectomics with a new high speed reflectometer,” Ger. J. Ophthalmol (to be published).

Ph. Chavanne, P. Bonvin, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, presented at European Optical Society Conference on Applied Optics and Optoelectronics, York, UK, 1994.

M. Böhnke, Ph. Chavanne, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, “Continuous corneal packometry with a new high speed reflectometry,” J. Refract. Surg. (to be published).

Chida, K.

Clivaz, X.

Danielson, B. L.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frömchen, C.

A. Kohlhaas, C. Frömchen, and E. Brinkmeyer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1493 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gianotti, R.

M. Böhnke, Ph. Chavanne, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, “High precision, high speed measurement of excimer laser keratectomics with a new high speed reflectometer,” Ger. J. Ophthalmol (to be published).

M. Böhnke, Ph. Chavanne, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, “Continuous corneal packometry with a new high speed reflectometry,” J. Refract. Surg. (to be published).

Ph. Chavanne, P. Bonvin, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, presented at European Optical Society Conference on Applied Optics and Optoelectronics, York, UK, 1994.

Gilgen, H. H.

Golubavic, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haddad, G. M.

R. M. Steinman, G. M. Haddad, A. A. Skavenski, and D. Wyman, Science 181, 810 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, M.

K. Takada, K. Yukimatsu, M. Kobayashi, and J. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kohlhaas, A.

A. Kohlhaas, C. Frömchen, and E. Brinkmeyer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1493 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquis-Weible, F.

Noda, J.

K. Takada, K. Yukimatsu, M. Kobayashi, and J. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida, and J. Noda, Appl. Opt. 26, 1603 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novàk, R. P.

Puliafito, C. A.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. P.

Salathé, R. P.

X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 28, 1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, R. P. Salathé, R. P. Novàk, and H. H. Gilgen, Opt. Lett. 17, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ph. Chavanne, P. Bonvin, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, presented at European Optical Society Conference on Applied Optics and Optoelectronics, York, UK, 1994.

M. Böhnke, Ph. Chavanne, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, “Continuous corneal packometry with a new high speed reflectometry,” J. Refract. Surg. (to be published).

M. Böhnke, Ph. Chavanne, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, “High precision, high speed measurement of excimer laser keratectomics with a new high speed reflectometer,” Ger. J. Ophthalmol (to be published).

Schmitt, J. M.

Schuman, J. S.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skavenski, A. A.

R. M. Steinman, G. M. Haddad, A. A. Skavenski, and D. Wyman, Science 181, 810 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorin, W. V.

D. M. Baney and W. V. Sorin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1109 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Steinman, R. M.

R. M. Steinman, G. M. Haddad, A. A. Skavenski, and D. Wyman, Science 181, 810 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

Takada, K.

K. Takada, K. Yukimatsu, M. Kobayashi, and J. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida, and J. Noda, Appl. Opt. 26, 1603 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Whittenberg, C. D.

Wyman, D.

R. M. Steinman, G. M. Haddad, A. A. Skavenski, and D. Wyman, Science 181, 810 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokohama, I.

Yukimatsu, K.

K. Takada, K. Yukimatsu, M. Kobayashi, and J. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Takada, K. Yukimatsu, M. Kobayashi, and J. Noda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 113, 325 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 28, 1553 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. M. Baney and W. V. Sorin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1109 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. Kohlhaas, C. Frömchen, and E. Brinkmeyer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1493 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Science (2)

R. M. Steinman, G. M. Haddad, A. A. Skavenski, and D. Wyman, Science 181, 810 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

M. Böhnke, Ph. Chavanne, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, “High precision, high speed measurement of excimer laser keratectomics with a new high speed reflectometer,” Ger. J. Ophthalmol (to be published).

M. Böhnke, Ph. Chavanne, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, “Continuous corneal packometry with a new high speed reflectometry,” J. Refract. Surg. (to be published).

Ph. Chavanne, P. Bonvin, R. Gianotti, and R. P. Salathé, presented at European Optical Society Conference on Applied Optics and Optoelectronics, York, UK, 1994.

H. Bebie, in Ocular Blood Flow, H. J. Kaiser, J. Flammer, and P. Hendrickson, eds. (Kager, Basel, Switzerland, 1995), pp. 120–127.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup: SLD, superluminescent diode; L3, lens; PC’s, polarization controllers; S, sample under test; RC’s, rotating cubes; M’s, mirrors; P’s, prisms; PD, photodiode. Inset: Geometry of the optical-path folding that is due to a prism.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated longitudinal scan depth in air versus cube rotation angle for a 50-mm BK7 cube with a prism (uppermost curve), a 25-mm BK7 cube with a prism (middle curve), and a 25-mm BK7 cube without a prism (lowest curve). The dashed curve shows a linear function of the scan.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated longitudinal scan speed in air versus scan depth for a 50-mm BK7 cube with a prism (uppermost curve), a 25-mm BK7 cube with a prism (middle curve), and a 25-mm BK7 cube without a prism (lowest curve). The rotation frequencies of the cubes are 48  Hz (uppermost curve), 96  Hz (middle curve), and 192  Hz (lowest curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Front and back surface reflections of a coated glass plate. Inset: 50  MHz signal resulting from the reflection on one of the plate facets.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

fD=2v/λ,
zα=L2n-1+1cossin-1sinαn+sinα×1+tanα2-2 tansin-1sinαn,
ΔL=2 ln2πλ2Δλ.

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