Abstract

We have built a programmable multiple-aperture confocal imaging system that uses a spatial light modulator (a Texas Instruments digital micromirror device). Excellent axial resolution and confocal imaging quality have been experimentally demonstrated with this system, even when the distance between adjacent on pixels is four times the size of the pixel aperture. By contrast, typical pinhole-based systems (e.g., a Nipkow disk) employ an adjacent aperture distance-to-size ratio of 10×. We have achieved improvement over such systems by 6.25× in both light-utilization efficiency and confocal image rate without adding more components and extra processing time.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Minsky, “Microscopy apparatus,” U.S. patent3,013,467 (December19, 1961).
  2. T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).
  3. J. B. Pawley, ed., Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (Plenum, New York, 1995).
  4. T. Wilson and C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).
  5. M. Petran, A. Boyde, and M. Hadravsky, Ref.  2, Chap.  9.
  6. G. S. Kino, Ref.  3, Chap. 10.
  7. L. D. Favro, R. L. Thomas, P. K. Guo, and L. Chen, “Confocal microscope,” U.S. Patent5,162,941 (November10, 1992).
  8. R. L. Thomas, L. D. Favro, P. K. Guo, and L. Chen, “Method of constructing confocal microscope components,” U.S. patent5,283,684 (February1, 1994).
  9. R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Nature (London) 383, 804 (1996).
  10. T. Wilson, R. Juskaitis, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Opt. Lett. 21, 1879 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. S. Kino and G. Q. Xiao, Ref.  2, Chap.  14.
  12. T. Wilson and S. J. Hewlett, J. Microsc. 163, 131 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. A. Yoder, Adv. Imaging 11(6), 43 (1996).
  14. J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics (Wiley, New York, 1978), p. 73.
  15. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1993), p. 437.

1996 (3)

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Nature (London) 383, 804 (1996).

L. A. Yoder, Adv. Imaging 11(6), 43 (1996).

T. Wilson, R. Juskaitis, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Opt. Lett. 21, 1879 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

T. Wilson and S. J. Hewlett, J. Microsc. 163, 131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1993), p. 437.

Chen, L.

R. L. Thomas, L. D. Favro, P. K. Guo, and L. Chen, “Method of constructing confocal microscope components,” U.S. patent5,283,684 (February1, 1994).

L. D. Favro, R. L. Thomas, P. K. Guo, and L. Chen, “Confocal microscope,” U.S. Patent5,162,941 (November10, 1992).

Favro, L. D.

L. D. Favro, R. L. Thomas, P. K. Guo, and L. Chen, “Confocal microscope,” U.S. Patent5,162,941 (November10, 1992).

R. L. Thomas, L. D. Favro, P. K. Guo, and L. Chen, “Method of constructing confocal microscope components,” U.S. patent5,283,684 (February1, 1994).

Gaskill, J. D.

J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics (Wiley, New York, 1978), p. 73.

Guo, P. K.

R. L. Thomas, L. D. Favro, P. K. Guo, and L. Chen, “Method of constructing confocal microscope components,” U.S. patent5,283,684 (February1, 1994).

L. D. Favro, R. L. Thomas, P. K. Guo, and L. Chen, “Confocal microscope,” U.S. Patent5,162,941 (November10, 1992).

Hewlett, S. J.

T. Wilson and S. J. Hewlett, J. Microsc. 163, 131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Juskaitis, R.

T. Wilson, R. Juskaitis, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Opt. Lett. 21, 1879 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Nature (London) 383, 804 (1996).

Kozubek, M.

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Nature (London) 383, 804 (1996).

T. Wilson, R. Juskaitis, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Opt. Lett. 21, 1879 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minsky, M.

M. Minsky, “Microscopy apparatus,” U.S. patent3,013,467 (December19, 1961).

Neil, M. A. A.

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Nature (London) 383, 804 (1996).

T. Wilson, R. Juskaitis, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Opt. Lett. 21, 1879 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C.

T. Wilson and C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Thomas, R. L.

R. L. Thomas, L. D. Favro, P. K. Guo, and L. Chen, “Method of constructing confocal microscope components,” U.S. patent5,283,684 (February1, 1994).

L. D. Favro, R. L. Thomas, P. K. Guo, and L. Chen, “Confocal microscope,” U.S. Patent5,162,941 (November10, 1992).

Wilson, T.

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Nature (London) 383, 804 (1996).

T. Wilson, R. Juskaitis, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Opt. Lett. 21, 1879 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilson and S. J. Hewlett, J. Microsc. 163, 131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson and C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1993), p. 437.

Yoder, L. A.

L. A. Yoder, Adv. Imaging 11(6), 43 (1996).

Adv. Imaging (1)

L. A. Yoder, Adv. Imaging 11(6), 43 (1996).

J. Microsc. (1)

T. Wilson and S. J. Hewlett, J. Microsc. 163, 131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, M. A. A. Neil, and M. Kozubek, Nature (London) 383, 804 (1996).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (11)

G. S. Kino and G. Q. Xiao, Ref.  2, Chap.  14.

J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics (Wiley, New York, 1978), p. 73.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1993), p. 437.

M. Minsky, “Microscopy apparatus,” U.S. patent3,013,467 (December19, 1961).

T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).

J. B. Pawley, ed., Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (Plenum, New York, 1995).

T. Wilson and C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

M. Petran, A. Boyde, and M. Hadravsky, Ref.  2, Chap.  9.

G. S. Kino, Ref.  3, Chap. 10.

L. D. Favro, R. L. Thomas, P. K. Guo, and L. Chen, “Confocal microscope,” U.S. Patent5,162,941 (November10, 1992).

R. L. Thomas, L. D. Favro, P. K. Guo, and L. Chen, “Method of constructing confocal microscope components,” U.S. patent5,283,684 (February1, 1994).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of a confocal microscope system with a DMD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized inverse axial resolution versus confocal pattern period.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image of a semiconductor circuit sample taken in a nonconfocal situation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Confocal images of a semiconductor circuit sample taken at confocal pattern periods of (a) 16×16, (b) 8×8, (c) 4×4, (d) 2×2.

Equations (2)

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Δa=0.515λN.A.M,
Δz=0.886λN.A.2.

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