Abstract

We performed what we believe are the first practical full-temporal-characterization measurements of ultrashort pulses from a free-electron laser (FEL). Second-harmonic-generation frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) was used to measure a train of mid-IR pulses distorted by a saturated water-vapor absorption line and showing free-induction decay. The measured direction of time was unambiguous because of prior knowledge regarding free-induction decay. These measurements require only 10% of the power of the laser beam and demonstrate that FROG can be implemented as a pulse diagnostic simultaneously with other experiments on a FEL.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. C. Marshall, Free-Electron Lasers (Macmillan, New York, 1985).
  2. W. B. Colson, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 532 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101 (1993); K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 32, 1253 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. A. Richman, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 268 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. I. Smith, H. A. Schwettman, K. W. Berryman, and R. L. Swent, Proc. SPIE 1854, 23 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Volfbeyn, K. Ricci, B. Chen, and G. Bekefi, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 22, 659 (1994); M. E. Conde, C. J. Taylor, and G. Bekefi, Phys. Fluids B 5, 1934 (1993); T. J. Orzechowski, E. T. Scharlemann, and D. B. Hopkins, Phys. Rev. A 35, 2184 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K. W. Berryman, B. A. Richman, H. A. Schwettman, T. I. Smith, and R. L. Swent, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 300 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 19, 2152 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. Fittinghoff, K. DeLong, R. Trebino, and C. L. Ladera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1955 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  11. J.-M. Flaud, Water Vapour Line Parameters from Microwave to Medium Infrared (Pergamon, New York, 1981).

1995 (4)

W. B. Colson, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 532 (1995).
[Crossref]

B. A. Richman, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 268 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. W. Berryman, B. A. Richman, H. A. Schwettman, T. I. Smith, and R. L. Swent, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 300 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Fittinghoff, K. DeLong, R. Trebino, and C. L. Ladera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1955 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

P. Volfbeyn, K. Ricci, B. Chen, and G. Bekefi, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 22, 659 (1994); M. E. Conde, C. J. Taylor, and G. Bekefi, Phys. Fluids B 5, 1934 (1993); T. J. Orzechowski, E. T. Scharlemann, and D. B. Hopkins, Phys. Rev. A 35, 2184 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. DeLong, D. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 19, 2152 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

Bekefi, G.

P. Volfbeyn, K. Ricci, B. Chen, and G. Bekefi, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 22, 659 (1994); M. E. Conde, C. J. Taylor, and G. Bekefi, Phys. Fluids B 5, 1934 (1993); T. J. Orzechowski, E. T. Scharlemann, and D. B. Hopkins, Phys. Rev. A 35, 2184 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berryman, K. W.

K. W. Berryman, B. A. Richman, H. A. Schwettman, T. I. Smith, and R. L. Swent, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 300 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. I. Smith, H. A. Schwettman, K. W. Berryman, and R. L. Swent, Proc. SPIE 1854, 23 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

P. Volfbeyn, K. Ricci, B. Chen, and G. Bekefi, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 22, 659 (1994); M. E. Conde, C. J. Taylor, and G. Bekefi, Phys. Fluids B 5, 1934 (1993); T. J. Orzechowski, E. T. Scharlemann, and D. B. Hopkins, Phys. Rev. A 35, 2184 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colson, W. B.

W. B. Colson, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 532 (1995).
[Crossref]

DeLong, K.

DeLong, K. W.

B. A. Richman, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 268 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fittinghoff, D.

Flaud, J.-M.

J.-M. Flaud, Water Vapour Line Parameters from Microwave to Medium Infrared (Pergamon, New York, 1981).

Hunter, J.

Kane, D. J.

Ladera, C. L.

Marshall, T. C.

T. C. Marshall, Free-Electron Lasers (Macmillan, New York, 1985).

Ricci, K.

P. Volfbeyn, K. Ricci, B. Chen, and G. Bekefi, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 22, 659 (1994); M. E. Conde, C. J. Taylor, and G. Bekefi, Phys. Fluids B 5, 1934 (1993); T. J. Orzechowski, E. T. Scharlemann, and D. B. Hopkins, Phys. Rev. A 35, 2184 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richman, B. A.

B. A. Richman, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 268 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. W. Berryman, B. A. Richman, H. A. Schwettman, T. I. Smith, and R. L. Swent, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 300 (1995).
[Crossref]

Schwettman, H. A.

K. W. Berryman, B. A. Richman, H. A. Schwettman, T. I. Smith, and R. L. Swent, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 300 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. I. Smith, H. A. Schwettman, K. W. Berryman, and R. L. Swent, Proc. SPIE 1854, 23 (1993).
[Crossref]

Smith, T. I.

K. W. Berryman, B. A. Richman, H. A. Schwettman, T. I. Smith, and R. L. Swent, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 300 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. I. Smith, H. A. Schwettman, K. W. Berryman, and R. L. Swent, Proc. SPIE 1854, 23 (1993).
[Crossref]

Swent, R. L.

K. W. Berryman, B. A. Richman, H. A. Schwettman, T. I. Smith, and R. L. Swent, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 300 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. I. Smith, H. A. Schwettman, K. W. Berryman, and R. L. Swent, Proc. SPIE 1854, 23 (1993).
[Crossref]

Trebino, R.

Volfbeyn, P.

P. Volfbeyn, K. Ricci, B. Chen, and G. Bekefi, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 22, 659 (1994); M. E. Conde, C. J. Taylor, and G. Bekefi, Phys. Fluids B 5, 1934 (1993); T. J. Orzechowski, E. T. Scharlemann, and D. B. Hopkins, Phys. Rev. A 35, 2184 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, W. E.

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

P. Volfbeyn, K. Ricci, B. Chen, and G. Bekefi, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 22, 659 (1994); M. E. Conde, C. J. Taylor, and G. Bekefi, Phys. Fluids B 5, 1934 (1993); T. J. Orzechowski, E. T. Scharlemann, and D. B. Hopkins, Phys. Rev. A 35, 2184 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (3)

K. W. Berryman, B. A. Richman, H. A. Schwettman, T. I. Smith, and R. L. Swent, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 300 (1995).
[Crossref]

B. A. Richman, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 268 (1995).
[Crossref]

W. B. Colson, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 532 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. I. Smith, H. A. Schwettman, K. W. Berryman, and R. L. Swent, Proc. SPIE 1854, 23 (1993).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

T. C. Marshall, Free-Electron Lasers (Macmillan, New York, 1985).

J.-M. Flaud, Water Vapour Line Parameters from Microwave to Medium Infrared (Pergamon, New York, 1981).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the mid-IR FROG apparatus, consisting of a SHG intensity autocorrelator, the output signal of which was fed into a monochromator. Both optical delay and wavelength were scanned mechanically, and each point in the FROG trace was averaged over several thousand optical pulses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental SHG FROG trace of 5.13-µm pulses from the FEL. The trace is a density plot with an overlaid contour plot. Contours are at 5%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of the peak value. (b) Reconstructed temporal intensity (solid curve) and phase (dotted curve) from the FROG iterative algorithm on the trace in (a). Inset: comparison of the reconstructed autocorrelation (curve) with the experimental trace delay marginal (points). (c) Reconstructed spectral intensity (solid curve) and phase (dotted curve), compared with the spectrum obtained by deconvolution of the experimental trace spectral marginal (points). (d) Reconstructed SHG FROG trace for comparison with (a). (e) Intensity and phase calculated with a model of a Gaussian pulse distorted by a narrow Lorentzian line.

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