Abstract

A new microfabrication technology for the design and realization of 1×n and n×n fiber-optic switches, x, xy, and xyz translational stages, optical scanners, fiber–fiber couplers, and fiber–planar-waveguide couplers is presented. This technology is based on bulk anisotropic etching and offers significant improvements over present micro-optical and microphotonic devices. With this new enabling technology we have fabricated 200-µm–2-cm translational stages for use in beam steering and fiber-optic switching applications. We present the fabrication and characterization of a 1×n micromechanical fiber-optic switch using this new technology. These nonoptimized devices have switching times of <10 ms with <-1-dB loss.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. K. Shankar, J. A. Morris, C. P. Yakymyshyn, and C. R. Pollock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 147 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Hogari and T. Matsumoto, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 722 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Shimizu, K. Yoshida, and R. Ohta, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 6-B, 370 (1993).
  5. S. P. Fang and H. F. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 19, 1204 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, H. Iwanmur, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, and K. Koyabu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 358 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. W. Barth, Sensors Actuators A21-23, 919-926 (1990).
  8. D. D. Denton, A. J. Thiel, L. M. Smith, S. Bajikar, R. Ghodssi, B. White, R. Fish, and L. McCaughan, presented at the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, San Francisco, Calif., May 1994.
  9. M. J. Daneman, O. Solgaard, N. C. Tien, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 396 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. A. Field, D. L. Burriesci, P. R. Robrish, and R. C. Ruby, Sensors Actuators A 53, 311 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (3)

M. J. Daneman, O. Solgaard, N. C. Tien, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Shimizu, K. Yoshida, and R. Ohta, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 6-B, 370 (1993).

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, H. Iwanmur, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, and K. Koyabu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 358 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

P. W. Barth, Sensors Actuators A21-23, 919-926 (1990).

K. Hogari and T. Matsumoto, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 722 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Shankar, J. A. Morris, C. P. Yakymyshyn, and C. R. Pollock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 147 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Amano, C.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, H. Iwanmur, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, and K. Koyabu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 358 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bajikar, S.

D. D. Denton, A. J. Thiel, L. M. Smith, S. Bajikar, R. Ghodssi, B. White, R. Fish, and L. McCaughan, presented at the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, San Francisco, Calif., May 1994.

Barth, P. W.

P. W. Barth, Sensors Actuators A21-23, 919-926 (1990).

Burriesci, D. L.

L. A. Field, D. L. Burriesci, P. R. Robrish, and R. C. Ruby, Sensors Actuators A 53, 311 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Daneman, M. J.

M. J. Daneman, O. Solgaard, N. C. Tien, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Denton, D. D.

D. D. Denton, A. J. Thiel, L. M. Smith, S. Bajikar, R. Ghodssi, B. White, R. Fish, and L. McCaughan, presented at the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, San Francisco, Calif., May 1994.

Fang, S. P.

Field, L. A.

L. A. Field, D. L. Burriesci, P. R. Robrish, and R. C. Ruby, Sensors Actuators A 53, 311 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fish, R.

D. D. Denton, A. J. Thiel, L. M. Smith, S. Bajikar, R. Ghodssi, B. White, R. Fish, and L. McCaughan, presented at the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, San Francisco, Calif., May 1994.

Ghodssi, R.

D. D. Denton, A. J. Thiel, L. M. Smith, S. Bajikar, R. Ghodssi, B. White, R. Fish, and L. McCaughan, presented at the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, San Francisco, Calif., May 1994.

Hirabayashi, K.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, H. Iwanmur, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, and K. Koyabu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 358 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hogari, K.

K. Hogari and T. Matsumoto, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 722 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Iwanmur, H.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, H. Iwanmur, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, and K. Koyabu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 358 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kohama, Y.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, H. Iwanmur, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, and K. Koyabu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 358 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koyabu, K.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, H. Iwanmur, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, and K. Koyabu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 358 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, H. Iwanmur, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, and K. Koyabu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 358 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. Y.

M. J. Daneman, O. Solgaard, N. C. Tien, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

K. Hogari and T. Matsumoto, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 722 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, H. Iwanmur, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, and K. Koyabu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 358 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McCaughan, L.

D. D. Denton, A. J. Thiel, L. M. Smith, S. Bajikar, R. Ghodssi, B. White, R. Fish, and L. McCaughan, presented at the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, San Francisco, Calif., May 1994.

Morris, J. A.

N. K. Shankar, J. A. Morris, C. P. Yakymyshyn, and C. R. Pollock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 147 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R. S.

M. J. Daneman, O. Solgaard, N. C. Tien, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, R.

M. Shimizu, K. Yoshida, and R. Ohta, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 6-B, 370 (1993).

Pollock, C. R.

N. K. Shankar, J. A. Morris, C. P. Yakymyshyn, and C. R. Pollock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 147 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Robrish, P. R.

L. A. Field, D. L. Burriesci, P. R. Robrish, and R. C. Ruby, Sensors Actuators A 53, 311 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ruby, R. C.

L. A. Field, D. L. Burriesci, P. R. Robrish, and R. C. Ruby, Sensors Actuators A 53, 311 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shankar, N. K.

N. K. Shankar, J. A. Morris, C. P. Yakymyshyn, and C. R. Pollock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 147 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, M.

M. Shimizu, K. Yoshida, and R. Ohta, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 6-B, 370 (1993).

Smith, L. M.

D. D. Denton, A. J. Thiel, L. M. Smith, S. Bajikar, R. Ghodssi, B. White, R. Fish, and L. McCaughan, presented at the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, San Francisco, Calif., May 1994.

Solgaard, O.

M. J. Daneman, O. Solgaard, N. C. Tien, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. F.

Thiel, A. J.

D. D. Denton, A. J. Thiel, L. M. Smith, S. Bajikar, R. Ghodssi, B. White, R. Fish, and L. McCaughan, presented at the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, San Francisco, Calif., May 1994.

Tien, N. C.

M. J. Daneman, O. Solgaard, N. C. Tien, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

White, B.

D. D. Denton, A. J. Thiel, L. M. Smith, S. Bajikar, R. Ghodssi, B. White, R. Fish, and L. McCaughan, presented at the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, San Francisco, Calif., May 1994.

Yakymyshyn, C. P.

N. K. Shankar, J. A. Morris, C. P. Yakymyshyn, and C. R. Pollock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 147 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, H. Iwanmur, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, and K. Koyabu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 358 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, H. Iwanmur, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, and K. Koyabu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 358 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

M. Shimizu, K. Yoshida, and R. Ohta, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 6-B, 370 (1993).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

N. K. Shankar, J. A. Morris, C. P. Yakymyshyn, and C. R. Pollock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 147 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, K. Hirabayashi, S. Matsuo, C. Amano, H. Iwanmur, Y. Kohama, T. Kurokawa, and K. Koyabu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 358 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Daneman, O. Solgaard, N. C. Tien, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun. E (1)

M. Shimizu, K. Yoshida, and R. Ohta, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 6-B, 370 (1993).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. Hogari and T. Matsumoto, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 722 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sensors Actuators (1)

P. W. Barth, Sensors Actuators A21-23, 919-926 (1990).

Sensors Actuators A (1)

L. A. Field, D. L. Burriesci, P. R. Robrish, and R. C. Ruby, Sensors Actuators A 53, 311 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. D. Denton, A. J. Thiel, L. M. Smith, S. Bajikar, R. Ghodssi, B. White, R. Fish, and L. McCaughan, presented at the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, San Francisco, Calif., May 1994.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of mechanism of the fiber-optic mechanical switch, showing the linear translational microstage with dovetail joints.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Process flow for fabrication of the dovetail-joint translational stage. (a) Si3N4 is deposited upon (100) Si. (b) A Si3N4 pattern is made for the KOH etch mask. (c) Si is antisotropically etched in KOH. (d) Si3N4 is removed and a second wafer is bonded to the etched wafer. (e) Si3N4 is redeposited. (f) Etching or polishing of the back wafer is done to expose dovetails. (g) Si is diced into chips and assembled.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron microscope photograph of an xy dovetail-joint structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of a micromachined 1×4 optical fiber switch.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response time of the 1×2 optical fiber switch.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photograph of a miniature xyz positioning stage with the mirror mounted by the novel technology de-scribed here.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Unoptimized Microfabricated Fiber-Optic Switch with DiCon Fiberoptics, Inc., and E-Tek Dynamics, Inc., 2 × 2 Multimode Switches

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