Abstract

A new method of preparing gradient refractive-index (GRIN) rods by using the swollen-gel polymerization technique is discussed. The polymerization of methyl methacrylate with benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) was carried out in a poly(methyl methacrylate) tube. The diffusion of the higher-refractive-index monomer BzMA in the swollen gel led to the formation of a GRIN distribution. After complete polymerization, a good symmetric and bubble-free GRIN rod was fabricated. An image with no distortion can be observed through the GRIN rods prepared by swollen-gel polymerization.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, and Y. H. Chang, Polym. J. 27, 310 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Y. Yang, B. C. Ho, J. J. Chen, T. W. Tseng, and M. S. Lee, Proc. SPIE 2000, 396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. H. Liu and M. H. Chu, Angew. Makromol. Chem. 174, 1 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. C. Sarti, C. Gostoli, G. Riccioli, and G. Carbonell, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 32, 3627 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

Y. Ohtsuka and Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

Carbonell, G.

G. C. Sarti, C. Gostoli, G. Riccioli, and G. Carbonell, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 32, 3627 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. H.

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, and Y. H. Chang, Polym. J. 27, 310 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. H.

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, and Y. H. Chang, Polym. J. 27, 310 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. J.

S. Y. Yang, B. C. Ho, J. J. Chen, T. W. Tseng, and M. S. Lee, Proc. SPIE 2000, 396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. C.

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, and Y. H. Chang, Polym. J. 27, 310 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chu, M. H.

J. H. Liu and M. H. Chu, Angew. Makromol. Chem. 174, 1 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gostoli, C.

G. C. Sarti, C. Gostoli, G. Riccioli, and G. Carbonell, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 32, 3627 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Herriott, D. R.

Ho, B. C.

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, and Y. H. Chang, Polym. J. 27, 310 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, B. C. Ho, J. J. Chen, T. W. Tseng, and M. S. Lee, Proc. SPIE 2000, 396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Horibe, A.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, and E. Nihei, in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers and Applications (European Institute for Communications and Networks, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993), p. 54.

Ishigure, T.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, and E. Nihei, in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers and Applications (European Institute for Communications and Networks, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993), p. 54.

Kapron, F. P.

F. P. Kapron, J. Opt. Soc. Am 60, 1433 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kimoto, Y.

Koike, Y.

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, and Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Opt. 21, 1057 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Koike, in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics, L. A. Hormak, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1992), p. 71–105.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, and E. Nihei, in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers and Applications (European Institute for Communications and Networks, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993), p. 54.

Lee, M. S.

S. Y. Yang, B. C. Ho, J. J. Chen, T. W. Tseng, and M. S. Lee, Proc. SPIE 2000, 396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. H.

J. H. Liu and M. H. Chu, Angew. Makromol. Chem. 174, 1 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mckenna, J.

Nihei, E.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, and E. Nihei, in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers and Applications (European Institute for Communications and Networks, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993), p. 54.

Ohtsuka, Y.

Rawson, E. G.

Riccioli, G.

G. C. Sarti, C. Gostoli, G. Riccioli, and G. Carbonell, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 32, 3627 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sarti, G. C.

G. C. Sarti, C. Gostoli, G. Riccioli, and G. Carbonell, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 32, 3627 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sugaho, T.

Terao, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka and Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, T. W.

S. Y. Yang, B. C. Ho, J. J. Chen, T. W. Tseng, and M. S. Lee, Proc. SPIE 2000, 396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

S. Y. Yang, B. C. Ho, J. J. Chen, T. W. Tseng, and M. S. Lee, Proc. SPIE 2000, 396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Makromol. Chem. (1)

J. H. Liu and M. H. Chu, Angew. Makromol. Chem. 174, 1 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (2)

G. C. Sarti, C. Gostoli, G. Riccioli, and G. Carbonell, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 32, 3627 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka and Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am (1)

F. P. Kapron, J. Opt. Soc. Am 60, 1433 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Polym. J. (1)

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, and Y. H. Chang, Polym. J. 27, 310 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Y. Yang, B. C. Ho, J. J. Chen, T. W. Tseng, and M. S. Lee, Proc. SPIE 2000, 396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Y. Koike, in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics, L. A. Hormak, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1992), p. 71–105.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, and E. Nihei, in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers and Applications (European Institute for Communications and Networks, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993), p. 54.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Preparation procedure of GRIN rod using swollen-gel polymerization: , M1; , M2. See text for an explanation of steps (a)–(f).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive-index profiles of GRIN rods (MMA/BzMA=4/1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image observed through a GRIN rod fabricated by swollen-gel polymerization.

Equations (1)

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nr=n01-Ar2/2,

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