Abstract

An optical Doppler tomography (ODT) system that permits imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media is described. ODT combines Doppler velocimetry with the high spatial resolution of low-coherence optical interferometry to measure fluid flow velocity at discrete spatial locations. Tomographic imaging of particle flow velocity within a circular conduit submerged 1 mm below the surface in a highly scattering phantom of Intralipid is demonstrated.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. Z. B. M. Niazi, T. J. H. Essex, R. Papini, D. Scott, N. R. Mclean, and M. J. M. Black, Burns 19, 485 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. S. Nelson and J. Applebaum, Clin. Pediatr. (Philadelphia) 29, 503 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Korbelik and G. Krosl, Br. J. Cancer 70, 604 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 20, 1337 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Izatt and M. Kukarni, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper CPD3-1.

1995

1994

M. Korbelik and G. Krosl, Br. J. Cancer 70, 604 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

Z. B. M. Niazi, T. J. H. Essex, R. Papini, D. Scott, N. R. Mclean, and M. J. M. Black, Burns 19, 485 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

J. S. Nelson and J. Applebaum, Clin. Pediatr. (Philadelphia) 29, 503 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Applebaum, J.

J. S. Nelson and J. Applebaum, Clin. Pediatr. (Philadelphia) 29, 503 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Black, M. J. M.

Z. B. M. Niazi, T. J. H. Essex, R. Papini, D. Scott, N. R. Mclean, and M. J. M. Black, Burns 19, 485 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Essex, T. J. H.

Z. B. M. Niazi, T. J. H. Essex, R. Papini, D. Scott, N. R. Mclean, and M. J. M. Black, Burns 19, 485 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J.

J. Izatt and M. Kukarni, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper CPD3-1.

Korbelik, M.

M. Korbelik and G. Krosl, Br. J. Cancer 70, 604 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krosl, G.

M. Korbelik and G. Krosl, Br. J. Cancer 70, 604 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kukarni, M.

J. Izatt and M. Kukarni, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper CPD3-1.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mclean, N. R.

Z. B. M. Niazi, T. J. H. Essex, R. Papini, D. Scott, N. R. Mclean, and M. J. M. Black, Burns 19, 485 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

X. J. Wang, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 20, 1337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Nelson and J. Applebaum, Clin. Pediatr. (Philadelphia) 29, 503 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Niazi, Z. B. M.

Z. B. M. Niazi, T. J. H. Essex, R. Papini, D. Scott, N. R. Mclean, and M. J. M. Black, Burns 19, 485 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papini, R.

Z. B. M. Niazi, T. J. H. Essex, R. Papini, D. Scott, N. R. Mclean, and M. J. M. Black, Burns 19, 485 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, D.

Z. B. M. Niazi, T. J. H. Essex, R. Papini, D. Scott, N. R. Mclean, and M. J. M. Black, Burns 19, 485 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. J.

Br. J. Cancer

M. Korbelik and G. Krosl, Br. J. Cancer 70, 604 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns

Z. B. M. Niazi, T. J. H. Essex, R. Papini, D. Scott, N. R. Mclean, and M. J. M. Black, Burns 19, 485 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Pediatr. (Philadelphia)

J. S. Nelson and J. Applebaum, Clin. Pediatr. (Philadelphia) 29, 503 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. Izatt and M. Kukarni, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper CPD3-1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of optical Doppler tomography system. D/A, digital-to-analog converter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

ODT image of polystyrene beads (diameter 1.7 µm; concentration 3.7×105/mm3) in a 580-µm-diameter polyethylene conduit submerged 1 mm below the surface in a scattering phantom of 0.25% Intralipid suspension. A, tomographic image of static polystyrene beads; B, tomographic image of flowing polystyrene beads; C, velocity image of flowing beads.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Horizontal cross section of the velocity profile at the center of the conduit. The open circles are the experimental data and the solid curve is a theoretical fit, assuming laminar flow. The agreement between the two suggests laminar flow, as expected.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ODT images of flowing 1% Intralipid in a circular conduit submerged 1 mm below the surface in a scattering phantom of 1% Intralipid solution.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δf=12πks-ki·V,
Δf=2V cosθ/λ0,
δ2=n¯2-1δ1,

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