Abstract

We use optical coherence tomography with a new configuration to determine the size and location of subsurface defects in solid ceramic and composite ceramic materials. Cross-sectional subsurface regions either parallel or perpendicular to the surface were examined. We present experimental results showing that the size and distribution of small subsurface defects can be determined with depth and lateral resolutions of 10 and 4 µm, respectively.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. H. Xu and S. Jahanmir, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 1388 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. E. Amin, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 74, 76 (1995).
  3. R. Komanduri, J. Lange, J. P. Wicksted, and J. S. Krasinski, in ARPA Ceramic Bearing Technology Annual Review, W. Coblentz, ed. (ARPA, Baltimore, Md., 1994), p. 10.
  4. J. A. Slotwinski, N. N. Hsu, and G. V. Blessing, Natl. Inst. Sci. Technol. Spec. Publ. 847, 117 (1993).
  5. W. A. Ellingson, D. M. Ayaz, M. P. Brada, and W. O’Connel, Natl. Inst. Sci. Technol. Spec. Publ. 847, 147 (1993).
  6. R. C. Youngquist, S. Carr, and D. E. N. Davies, Opt. Lett. 12, 158 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida, and J. Noda, Appl. Opt. 26, 1063 (1987).
  8. P. R. Battle, M. Bashkansky, R. Mahon, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Eng. 35, 1119 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Bashkansky, P. R. Battle, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, and J. Reintjes, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1397 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. G. Fujimoto, S. De Silvestri, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Puliafito, R. Margulis, and A. Oseroff, Opt. Lett. 11, 150 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, K. I. Pravdenko, A. M. Sergeev, F. I. Feldshtein, Ya. I. Khanin, and D. V. Shabanov, JETP Lett. 61, 159 (1995).
  13. M. Bashkansky, C. L. Adler, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 19, 350 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Kahn, A. Dalzell, and B. Kovel, Adv. Ceram. Mater. 2, 836 (1987).

1996 (2)

P. R. Battle, M. Bashkansky, R. Mahon, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Eng. 35, 1119 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Bashkansky, P. R. Battle, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, and J. Reintjes, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, K. I. Pravdenko, A. M. Sergeev, F. I. Feldshtein, Ya. I. Khanin, and D. V. Shabanov, JETP Lett. 61, 159 (1995).

H. H. Xu and S. Jahanmir, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 1388 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Amin, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 74, 76 (1995).

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

J. A. Slotwinski, N. N. Hsu, and G. V. Blessing, Natl. Inst. Sci. Technol. Spec. Publ. 847, 117 (1993).

W. A. Ellingson, D. M. Ayaz, M. P. Brada, and W. O’Connel, Natl. Inst. Sci. Technol. Spec. Publ. 847, 147 (1993).

1992 (1)

1987 (3)

R. C. Youngquist, S. Carr, and D. E. N. Davies, Opt. Lett. 12, 158 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida, and J. Noda, Appl. Opt. 26, 1063 (1987).

M. Kahn, A. Dalzell, and B. Kovel, Adv. Ceram. Mater. 2, 836 (1987).

1986 (1)

Adler, C. L.

Amin, K. E.

K. E. Amin, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 74, 76 (1995).

Ayaz, D. M.

W. A. Ellingson, D. M. Ayaz, M. P. Brada, and W. O’Connel, Natl. Inst. Sci. Technol. Spec. Publ. 847, 147 (1993).

Bashkansky, M.

P. R. Battle, M. Bashkansky, R. Mahon, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Eng. 35, 1119 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Bashkansky, P. R. Battle, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, and J. Reintjes, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Bashkansky, C. L. Adler, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 19, 350 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Battle, P. R.

M. Bashkansky, P. R. Battle, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, and J. Reintjes, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Battle, M. Bashkansky, R. Mahon, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Eng. 35, 1119 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blessing, G. V.

J. A. Slotwinski, N. N. Hsu, and G. V. Blessing, Natl. Inst. Sci. Technol. Spec. Publ. 847, 117 (1993).

Brada, M. P.

W. A. Ellingson, D. M. Ayaz, M. P. Brada, and W. O’Connel, Natl. Inst. Sci. Technol. Spec. Publ. 847, 147 (1993).

Carr, S.

Chida, K.

K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida, and J. Noda, Appl. Opt. 26, 1063 (1987).

Dalzell, A.

M. Kahn, A. Dalzell, and B. Kovel, Adv. Ceram. Mater. 2, 836 (1987).

Davies, D. E. N.

De Silvestri, S.

Duncan, M. D.

M. Bashkansky, P. R. Battle, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, and J. Reintjes, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ellingson, W. A.

W. A. Ellingson, D. M. Ayaz, M. P. Brada, and W. O’Connel, Natl. Inst. Sci. Technol. Spec. Publ. 847, 147 (1993).

Feldshtein, F. I.

V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, K. I. Pravdenko, A. M. Sergeev, F. I. Feldshtein, Ya. I. Khanin, and D. V. Shabanov, JETP Lett. 61, 159 (1995).

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gelikonov, G. V.

V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, K. I. Pravdenko, A. M. Sergeev, F. I. Feldshtein, Ya. I. Khanin, and D. V. Shabanov, JETP Lett. 61, 159 (1995).

Gelikonov, V. M.

V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, K. I. Pravdenko, A. M. Sergeev, F. I. Feldshtein, Ya. I. Khanin, and D. V. Shabanov, JETP Lett. 61, 159 (1995).

Hee, M. R.

Hsu, N. N.

J. A. Slotwinski, N. N. Hsu, and G. V. Blessing, Natl. Inst. Sci. Technol. Spec. Publ. 847, 117 (1993).

Huang, D.

Ippen, E. P.

Jahanmir, S.

H. H. Xu and S. Jahanmir, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 1388 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, M.

M. Bashkansky, P. R. Battle, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, and J. Reintjes, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Kahn, A. Dalzell, and B. Kovel, Adv. Ceram. Mater. 2, 836 (1987).

Khanin, Ya. I.

V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, K. I. Pravdenko, A. M. Sergeev, F. I. Feldshtein, Ya. I. Khanin, and D. V. Shabanov, JETP Lett. 61, 159 (1995).

Komanduri, R.

R. Komanduri, J. Lange, J. P. Wicksted, and J. S. Krasinski, in ARPA Ceramic Bearing Technology Annual Review, W. Coblentz, ed. (ARPA, Baltimore, Md., 1994), p. 10.

Kovel, B.

M. Kahn, A. Dalzell, and B. Kovel, Adv. Ceram. Mater. 2, 836 (1987).

Krasinski, J. S.

R. Komanduri, J. Lange, J. P. Wicksted, and J. S. Krasinski, in ARPA Ceramic Bearing Technology Annual Review, W. Coblentz, ed. (ARPA, Baltimore, Md., 1994), p. 10.

Kuranov, R. V.

V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, K. I. Pravdenko, A. M. Sergeev, F. I. Feldshtein, Ya. I. Khanin, and D. V. Shabanov, JETP Lett. 61, 159 (1995).

Lange, J.

R. Komanduri, J. Lange, J. P. Wicksted, and J. S. Krasinski, in ARPA Ceramic Bearing Technology Annual Review, W. Coblentz, ed. (ARPA, Baltimore, Md., 1994), p. 10.

Lin, C. P.

Mahon, R.

P. R. Battle, M. Bashkansky, R. Mahon, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Eng. 35, 1119 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, R.

Noda, J.

K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida, and J. Noda, Appl. Opt. 26, 1063 (1987).

O’Connel, W.

W. A. Ellingson, D. M. Ayaz, M. P. Brada, and W. O’Connel, Natl. Inst. Sci. Technol. Spec. Publ. 847, 147 (1993).

Oseroff, A.

Pravdenko, K. I.

V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, K. I. Pravdenko, A. M. Sergeev, F. I. Feldshtein, Ya. I. Khanin, and D. V. Shabanov, JETP Lett. 61, 159 (1995).

Puliafito, C. A.

Reintjes, J.

P. R. Battle, M. Bashkansky, R. Mahon, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Eng. 35, 1119 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Bashkansky, P. R. Battle, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, and J. Reintjes, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Bashkansky, C. L. Adler, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 19, 350 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A. M.

V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, K. I. Pravdenko, A. M. Sergeev, F. I. Feldshtein, Ya. I. Khanin, and D. V. Shabanov, JETP Lett. 61, 159 (1995).

Shabanov, D. V.

V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, K. I. Pravdenko, A. M. Sergeev, F. I. Feldshtein, Ya. I. Khanin, and D. V. Shabanov, JETP Lett. 61, 159 (1995).

Slotwinski, J. A.

J. A. Slotwinski, N. N. Hsu, and G. V. Blessing, Natl. Inst. Sci. Technol. Spec. Publ. 847, 117 (1993).

Swanson, E. A.

Takada, K.

K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida, and J. Noda, Appl. Opt. 26, 1063 (1987).

Wicksted, J. P.

R. Komanduri, J. Lange, J. P. Wicksted, and J. S. Krasinski, in ARPA Ceramic Bearing Technology Annual Review, W. Coblentz, ed. (ARPA, Baltimore, Md., 1994), p. 10.

Xu, H. H.

H. H. Xu and S. Jahanmir, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 1388 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yokohama, I.

K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida, and J. Noda, Appl. Opt. 26, 1063 (1987).

Youngquist, R. C.

Adv. Ceram. Mater. (1)

M. Kahn, A. Dalzell, and B. Kovel, Adv. Ceram. Mater. 2, 836 (1987).

Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. (1)

K. E. Amin, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 74, 76 (1995).

Appl. Opt. (1)

K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida, and J. Noda, Appl. Opt. 26, 1063 (1987).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

M. Bashkansky, P. R. Battle, M. D. Duncan, M. Kahn, and J. Reintjes, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Xu and S. Jahanmir, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 1388 (1995).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, K. I. Pravdenko, A. M. Sergeev, F. I. Feldshtein, Ya. I. Khanin, and D. V. Shabanov, JETP Lett. 61, 159 (1995).

Natl. Inst. Sci. Technol. Spec. Publ. (2)

J. A. Slotwinski, N. N. Hsu, and G. V. Blessing, Natl. Inst. Sci. Technol. Spec. Publ. 847, 117 (1993).

W. A. Ellingson, D. M. Ayaz, M. P. Brada, and W. O’Connel, Natl. Inst. Sci. Technol. Spec. Publ. 847, 147 (1993).

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. R. Battle, M. Bashkansky, R. Mahon, and J. Reintjes, Opt. Eng. 35, 1119 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

R. Komanduri, J. Lange, J. P. Wicksted, and J. S. Krasinski, in ARPA Ceramic Bearing Technology Annual Review, W. Coblentz, ed. (ARPA, Baltimore, Md., 1994), p. 10.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the low-coherence fiber-inter-ferometer-based system used to detect subsurface defects in ceramics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gated images of the indent in the PZT 4S ceramic in the xy plane, scanned at depths of (a) 0, (b) 8, (c) 15, and (d) 23 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gated images in the xy plane of the indent in the silicon nitride ceramic, scanned at depths of (a) 0, (b) 12, (c) 30, (d) 47, (e) 62, and (f) 85 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) xz gated image of the PZT 5A composite ceramic structure, showing individual layers. (b)–(l) Gated images in the xy plane scanned at depths of (in the same order) 8, 31, 38, 46, 54, 69, 77, 92, 100, 108, and 123 µm.

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