Abstract

We present a novel class of highly sensitive sensors based on long-period fiber gratings that can be implemented with simple and inexpensive demodulation schemes. Temperature, strain, and refractive-index resolutions of 0.65 °C, 65.75 μ∈, and 7.69 × 10−5, respectively, are demonstrated for gratings fabricated in standard telecommunication fibers.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, Optical Fiber Sensors: Principles and Components (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1988).
  2. A. D. Kersey, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMB1.
  3. F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 27, 682 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Ergodan, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Gloge, App. Opt. 10, 2252–2258 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, S. J. Hewlet, J. D. Love, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMB4.

1996

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Ergodan, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 27, 682 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1971

D. Gloge, App. Opt. 10, 2252–2258 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Ergodan, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 27, 682 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, Optical Fiber Sensors: Principles and Components (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1988).

Dakin, J.

J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, Optical Fiber Sensors: Principles and Components (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1988).

Ergodan, T. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Ergodan, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gloge, D.

D. Gloge, App. Opt. 10, 2252–2258 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hewlet, S. J.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, S. J. Hewlet, J. D. Love, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMB4.

Hill, K. O.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 27, 682 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 27, 682 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Ergodan, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMB1.

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Ergodan, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, S. J. Hewlet, J. D. Love, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMB4.

Malo, B.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 27, 682 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, S. J. Hewlet, J. D. Love, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMB4.

Morey, W. W.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, S. J. Hewlet, J. D. Love, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMB4.

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Ergodan, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, I.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 27, 682 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Ergodan, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

App. Opt.

D. Gloge, App. Opt. 10, 2252–2258 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 27, 682 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe, T. E. Ergodan, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, Optical Fiber Sensors: Principles and Components (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1988).

A. D. Kersey, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMB1.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, S. J. Hewlet, J. D. Love, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMB4.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral shift in the fourth-order resonance band for a grating with Λ = 130 μm for different values of the cladding strain-optic coefficient.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Shift in the third-order coupling band width temperature for a long-period grating in fiber C (●) and for a conventional Bragg grating (dashed line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shift in the fourth-order coupling band with axial strain for a long-period grating in fiber D (●) and a Bragg grating (dashed line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change in the transmission of a laser diode centered at 1317 nm through a grating written in fiber C for three different trials.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Shift in the fifth-order coupling band with refractive index of ambient material for gratings in fiber E. The shift is with reference to the spectral position with air as the surrounding medium.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Temperature, Strain, and Refractive-Index Coefficients of Long-Period Grating Sensors

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

β 1 - β 2 = Δ β = 2 π / Λ

Metrics