Abstract

Atoms can be accumulated by velocity-selective coherent population trapping (VSCPT) in dark states of very highly monovelocity, resulting in very narrow distributions. The optical pumping process that permits the population accumulation proceeds by random walk in momentum space and is of limited efficiency. Several authors have predicted that damping forces can enhance VSCPT in carefully chosen laser fields. We present corroboration of this idea with measurements showing increased efficiency for VSCPT.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, P. Marte, J. Mervis, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, T. Cai, Phys. Rev. A 48, R4035 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, E. Vredenbregt, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2546 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. A 52, 2295 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Widmer, M. Doery, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. A 53, 946 (1996).
  19. M. Doery, R. Gupta, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, E. Vredenbregt, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2334 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1996 (1)

M. Widmer, M. Doery, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. A 53, 946 (1996).

1995 (3)

M. Doery, R. Gupta, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, E. Vredenbregt, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lawall, S. Kulin, B. Saubemea, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4194 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. A 52, 2295 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (6)

F. Bardou, J. Bouchard, O. Emile, A. Aspect, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 203 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lawall, F. Bardou, B. Saubamea, F. Shimizu, M. Leduc, A. Aspect, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1915 (1994).

M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, E. Vredenbregt, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2546 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taïeb, P. Zoller, S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, M. Olshanii, A. Hemmerich, T. Hänsch, Europhys. Lett. 27, 109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu, C. Foot, J. Phys. B 27, L677 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

C. Xie, R. Gupta, S. Padua, H. Batelaan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3217 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, A. Chu, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, Opt. Commun. 103, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, P. Marte, J. Mervis, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, T. Cai, Phys. Rev. A 48, R4035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Bergeman, Phys. Rev. A 48, R3425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (3)

Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, Europhys. Lett. 14, 761 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Wilkens, E. Schumacher, P. Meystre, Phys. Rev. A 44, 3130 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Olshanii, J. Phys. B 24, 583 (1991); Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR). 76, 196 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 826 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

1976 (1)

E. Arimondo, G. Orriols, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 17, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

F. Papoff, F. Mauri, E. Arimondo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 321 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2112 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 826 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Arimondo, G. Orriols, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 17, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

F. Bardou, J. Bouchard, O. Emile, A. Aspect, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 203 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lawall, F. Bardou, B. Saubamea, F. Shimizu, M. Leduc, A. Aspect, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1915 (1994).

A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2112 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 826 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardou, F.

J. Lawall, F. Bardou, B. Saubamea, F. Shimizu, M. Leduc, A. Aspect, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1915 (1994).

F. Bardou, J. Bouchard, O. Emile, A. Aspect, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 203 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Batelaan, H.

C. Xie, R. Gupta, S. Padua, H. Batelaan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3217 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellanca, J.

M. Widmer, M. Doery, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. A 53, 946 (1996).

M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. A 52, 2295 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, E. Vredenbregt, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2546 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergeman, T.

M. Widmer, M. Doery, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. A 53, 946 (1996).

M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. A 52, 2295 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Doery, R. Gupta, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, E. Vredenbregt, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, E. Vredenbregt, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2546 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bergeman, Phys. Rev. A 48, R3425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigelow, N.

J. Lawall, S. Kulin, B. Saubemea, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4194 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, P. Marte, J. Mervis, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, T. Cai, Phys. Rev. A 48, R4035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, A. Chu, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, Opt. Commun. 103, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bouchard, J.

F. Bardou, J. Bouchard, O. Emile, A. Aspect, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 203 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buell, W.

M. Widmer, M. Doery, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. A 53, 946 (1996).

M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. A 52, 2295 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, T.

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, P. Marte, J. Mervis, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, T. Cai, Phys. Rev. A 48, R4035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Castin, Y.

Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, Europhys. Lett. 14, 761 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chu, A.

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, A. Chu, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, Opt. Commun. 103, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

J. Lawall, S. Kulin, B. Saubemea, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4194 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bardou, J. Bouchard, O. Emile, A. Aspect, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 203 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lawall, F. Bardou, B. Saubamea, F. Shimizu, M. Leduc, A. Aspect, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1915 (1994).

A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2112 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 826 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalibard, J.

Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, Europhys. Lett. 14, 761 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Doery, M.

M. Widmer, M. Doery, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. A 53, 946 (1996).

M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. A 52, 2295 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Doery, R. Gupta, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, E. Vredenbregt, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, E. Vredenbregt, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2546 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dum, R.

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taïeb, P. Zoller, S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emile, O.

F. Bardou, J. Bouchard, O. Emile, A. Aspect, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 203 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esslinger, T.

M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, M. Olshanii, A. Hemmerich, T. Hänsch, Europhys. Lett. 27, 109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Foot, C.

H. Wu, C. Foot, J. Phys. B 27, L677 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gray, H.

Gupta, R.

M. Doery, R. Gupta, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, E. Vredenbregt, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xie, R. Gupta, S. Padua, H. Batelaan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3217 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T.

M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, M. Olshanii, A. Hemmerich, T. Hänsch, Europhys. Lett. 27, 109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hemmer, P.

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, P. Marte, J. Mervis, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, T. Cai, Phys. Rev. A 48, R4035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, A. Chu, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, Opt. Commun. 103, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hemmerich, A.

M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, M. Olshanii, A. Hemmerich, T. Hänsch, Europhys. Lett. 27, 109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, R.

A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2112 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 826 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, D.

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, P. Marte, J. Mervis, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, T. Cai, Phys. Rev. A 48, R4035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, A. Chu, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, Opt. Commun. 103, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kulin, S.

J. Lawall, S. Kulin, B. Saubemea, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4194 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawall, J.

J. Lawall, S. Kulin, B. Saubemea, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4194 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lawall, F. Bardou, B. Saubamea, F. Shimizu, M. Leduc, A. Aspect, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1915 (1994).

Leduc, M.

J. Lawall, S. Kulin, B. Saubemea, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4194 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lawall, F. Bardou, B. Saubamea, F. Shimizu, M. Leduc, A. Aspect, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1915 (1994).

Marte, P.

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taïeb, P. Zoller, S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, P. Marte, J. Mervis, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, T. Cai, Phys. Rev. A 48, R4035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mauri, F.

Mervis, J.

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, P. Marte, J. Mervis, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, T. Cai, Phys. Rev. A 48, R4035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, H.

M. Widmer, M. Doery, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. A 53, 946 (1996).

M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. A 52, 2295 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Doery, R. Gupta, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, E. Vredenbregt, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, E. Vredenbregt, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2546 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meystre, P.

M. Wilkens, E. Schumacher, P. Meystre, Phys. Rev. A 44, 3130 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olshanii, M.

M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, M. Olshanii, A. Hemmerich, T. Hänsch, Europhys. Lett. 27, 109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Olshanii, J. Phys. B 24, 583 (1991); Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR). 76, 196 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Orriols, G.

E. Arimondo, G. Orriols, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 17, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Padua, S.

C. Xie, R. Gupta, S. Padua, H. Batelaan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3217 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papoff, F.

Prentiss, M.

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taïeb, P. Zoller, S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, P. Marte, J. Mervis, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, T. Cai, Phys. Rev. A 48, R4035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, A. Chu, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, Opt. Commun. 103, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Saubamea, B.

J. Lawall, F. Bardou, B. Saubamea, F. Shimizu, M. Leduc, A. Aspect, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1915 (1994).

Saubemea, B.

J. Lawall, S. Kulin, B. Saubemea, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4194 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schumacher, E.

M. Wilkens, E. Schumacher, P. Meystre, Phys. Rev. A 44, 3130 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shahriar, M.

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, A. Chu, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, Opt. Commun. 103, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, P. Marte, J. Mervis, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, T. Cai, Phys. Rev. A 48, R4035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shahriar, S.

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taïeb, P. Zoller, S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, F.

J. Lawall, F. Bardou, B. Saubamea, F. Shimizu, M. Leduc, A. Aspect, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1915 (1994).

Stroud, C.

Taïeb, R.

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taïeb, P. Zoller, S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vansteenkiste, N.

A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2112 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 826 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vredenbregt, E.

M. Doery, R. Gupta, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, E. Vredenbregt, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, E. Vredenbregt, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2546 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weidemuller, M.

M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, M. Olshanii, A. Hemmerich, T. Hänsch, Europhys. Lett. 27, 109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Whitley, R.

Widmer, M.

M. Widmer, M. Doery, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. A 53, 946 (1996).

M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, W. Buell, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. A 52, 2295 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Doery, M. Widmer, J. Bellanca, E. Vredenbregt, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2546 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Widmer, Ph.D. dissertation (State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York1995).

Wilkens, M.

M. Wilkens, E. Schumacher, P. Meystre, Phys. Rev. A 44, 3130 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

H. Wu, C. Foot, J. Phys. B 27, L677 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

C. Xie, R. Gupta, S. Padua, H. Batelaan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3217 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoller, P.

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taïeb, P. Zoller, S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Europhys. Lett. (2)

Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, Europhys. Lett. 14, 761 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Weidemuller, T. Esslinger, M. Olshanii, A. Hemmerich, T. Hänsch, Europhys. Lett. 27, 109 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. B (2)

H. Wu, C. Foot, J. Phys. B 27, L677 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Olshanii, J. Phys. B 24, 583 (1991); Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR). 76, 196 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lett. Nuovo Cimento (1)

E. Arimondo, G. Orriols, Lett. Nuovo Cimento 17, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, A. Chu, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, Opt. Commun. 103, 453 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (6)

M. Doery, R. Gupta, T. Bergeman, H. Metcalf, E. Vredenbregt, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shahriar, P. Hemmer, M. Prentiss, P. Marte, J. Mervis, D. Katz, N. Bigelow, T. Cai, Phys. Rev. A 48, R4035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taïeb, P. Zoller, S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wilkens, E. Schumacher, P. Meystre, Phys. Rev. A 44, 3130 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Other (2)

M. Widmer, Ph.D. dissertation (State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated force-versus-velocity curves for different laser configurations showing both the average force and a typical set of simulated fluctuations. (a) The usual Doppler cooling scheme whose steady-state energy width is ħΓ/2. (b) VSCPT as originally studied in Refs. 3 and 4 with no damping; note that the fluctuations vanish for ℙ = 0 because the atoms are in a dark state. (c) The case for both VSCPT and damping; the fluctuations vanish for ℙ = 0 and there is damping (along with fluctuations) at other values.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured velocity distribution for the J = 1 → 1 transition in He* with δ = 3Γ and s = 14 for θ = π/4 (dots) and θ = π/2 (crosses). Not only is the peak higher for π/4, but more atoms are removed from the wings, indicating less momentum diffusion.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated force versus velocity curves for θ = π/4 with the optimum parameters for VSCPT (δ = Γ, s = 2) and also for δ = 2Γ and s = 8. Note the large increase in velocity capture range and stronger damping force but the same damping constant (slope near v = 0).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of measured height of the peak (normalized to the level of the initial distribution) of width vr versus θ for s = 14 and δ = 3Γ. The plot is maximum at θ = π/4 but does not vanish at π/2 because of ordinary VSCPT. The θ value has been corrected for a mechanical offset.

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