Abstract

We present what to our knowledge are the first filtered Rayleigh scattering temperature measurements and use them in sooting flame. This new technique for two-dimensional thermography in gas combustion overcomes some of the major disadvantages of the standard Rayleigh technique. It suppresses scattered background light from walls or windows and permits detection of two-dimensional Rayleigh intensity distributions of the gas phase in the presence of small particles by spectral filtering of the scattered light.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Tunbridge Wells, UK, 1988).
  2. R. Miles, W. Lempert, Appl. Phys. B 51, 1 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Forkey, S. Cogne, A. Smits, S. Bogdonoff, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Time-sequenced and spectrally filtered Rayleigh imaging of shock wave and boundary layer structure for inlet characterization,” AIAA paper 93-2300 (American Institue of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1993).
  4. R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, W. R. Lempert, “Filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements in supersonic/hypersonic facilities,” AIAA paper 92-3894 (American Institute of Astronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1992).
  5. R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, N. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, “Precision whole-field velocity measurements with frequency-scanned filtered Rayleigh scattering,” presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Application of Laser Technique to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July 1994.
  6. S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la molecule d’Iode (Presses du CNRS, Paris, 1978), Part 3, p. 53.
  7. A. Leipertz, J. Haumann, M. Fiebig, Chem. Eng. Technol. 10, 190 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. A. Alberty, R. J. Silbey, Physical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1992).
  9. R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (Wiley, New York, 1960).
  10. S. Chapman, T. G. Cowling, The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1970).
  11. S. Kampmann, Entwicklung einer zweidimensionalen Laser-Rayleigh-Temperaturmesssonde zur Untersuchung hochturbulenter Verbrennungsvorgänge in einem industriellen Drallbrenner, Berichte zur Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik (Esytec, Erlangen, Germany, 1994), Heft 94.2.
  12. S. Kampmann, A. Leipertz, K. Döbbeling, J. Haumann, Th. Sattelmayer, Appl. Opt. 32, 6167 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Kampmann, Th. Seeger, A. Leipertz, Appl. Opt. 34, 2780 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, T. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, R. J. Santorro, Combust. Flame 62, 157 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

S. Kampmann, Entwicklung einer zweidimensionalen Laser-Rayleigh-Temperaturmesssonde zur Untersuchung hochturbulenter Verbrennungsvorgänge in einem industriellen Drallbrenner, Berichte zur Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik (Esytec, Erlangen, Germany, 1994), Heft 94.2.

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

R. Miles, W. Lempert, Appl. Phys. B 51, 1 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. Leipertz, J. Haumann, M. Fiebig, Chem. Eng. Technol. 10, 190 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, T. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, R. J. Santorro, Combust. Flame 62, 157 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Alberty, R. A.

R. A. Alberty, R. J. Silbey, Physical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1992).

Bird, R. B.

R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (Wiley, New York, 1960).

Bogdonoff, S.

J. Forkey, S. Cogne, A. Smits, S. Bogdonoff, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Time-sequenced and spectrally filtered Rayleigh imaging of shock wave and boundary layer structure for inlet characterization,” AIAA paper 93-2300 (American Institue of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Chapman, S.

S. Chapman, T. G. Cowling, The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1970).

Cogne, S.

J. Forkey, S. Cogne, A. Smits, S. Bogdonoff, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Time-sequenced and spectrally filtered Rayleigh imaging of shock wave and boundary layer structure for inlet characterization,” AIAA paper 93-2300 (American Institue of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Cowling, T. G.

S. Chapman, T. G. Cowling, The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1970).

Döbbeling, K.

Dorfman, T. C.

K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, T. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, R. J. Santorro, Combust. Flame 62, 157 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Tunbridge Wells, UK, 1988).

Fiebig, M.

A. Leipertz, J. Haumann, M. Fiebig, Chem. Eng. Technol. 10, 190 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Finkelstein, N.

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, N. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, “Precision whole-field velocity measurements with frequency-scanned filtered Rayleigh scattering,” presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Application of Laser Technique to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July 1994.

Forkey, J.

J. Forkey, S. Cogne, A. Smits, S. Bogdonoff, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Time-sequenced and spectrally filtered Rayleigh imaging of shock wave and boundary layer structure for inlet characterization,” AIAA paper 93-2300 (American Institue of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Forkey, J. N.

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, N. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, “Precision whole-field velocity measurements with frequency-scanned filtered Rayleigh scattering,” presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Application of Laser Technique to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July 1994.

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, W. R. Lempert, “Filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements in supersonic/hypersonic facilities,” AIAA paper 92-3894 (American Institute of Astronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Gerstenkorn, S.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la molecule d’Iode (Presses du CNRS, Paris, 1978), Part 3, p. 53.

Haumann, J.

Kampmann, S.

S. Kampmann, Th. Seeger, A. Leipertz, Appl. Opt. 34, 2780 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kampmann, Entwicklung einer zweidimensionalen Laser-Rayleigh-Temperaturmesssonde zur Untersuchung hochturbulenter Verbrennungsvorgänge in einem industriellen Drallbrenner, Berichte zur Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik (Esytec, Erlangen, Germany, 1994), Heft 94.2.

S. Kampmann, A. Leipertz, K. Döbbeling, J. Haumann, Th. Sattelmayer, Appl. Opt. 32, 6167 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leipertz, A.

Lempert, W.

R. Miles, W. Lempert, Appl. Phys. B 51, 1 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lempert, W. R.

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, W. R. Lempert, “Filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements in supersonic/hypersonic facilities,” AIAA paper 92-3894 (American Institute of Astronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1992).

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, N. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, “Precision whole-field velocity measurements with frequency-scanned filtered Rayleigh scattering,” presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Application of Laser Technique to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July 1994.

J. Forkey, S. Cogne, A. Smits, S. Bogdonoff, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Time-sequenced and spectrally filtered Rayleigh imaging of shock wave and boundary layer structure for inlet characterization,” AIAA paper 93-2300 (American Institue of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Lightfoot, E. N.

R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (Wiley, New York, 1960).

Luc, P.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la molecule d’Iode (Presses du CNRS, Paris, 1978), Part 3, p. 53.

Mallard, W. G.

K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, T. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, R. J. Santorro, Combust. Flame 62, 157 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R.

R. Miles, W. Lempert, Appl. Phys. B 51, 1 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. B.

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, W. R. Lempert, “Filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements in supersonic/hypersonic facilities,” AIAA paper 92-3894 (American Institute of Astronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1992).

J. Forkey, S. Cogne, A. Smits, S. Bogdonoff, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Time-sequenced and spectrally filtered Rayleigh imaging of shock wave and boundary layer structure for inlet characterization,” AIAA paper 93-2300 (American Institue of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1993).

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, N. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, “Precision whole-field velocity measurements with frequency-scanned filtered Rayleigh scattering,” presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Application of Laser Technique to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July 1994.

Miller, J. H.

K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, T. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, R. J. Santorro, Combust. Flame 62, 157 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Santorro, R. J.

K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, T. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, R. J. Santorro, Combust. Flame 62, 157 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sattelmayer, Th.

Seeger, Th.

Silbey, R. J.

R. A. Alberty, R. J. Silbey, Physical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1992).

Smits, A.

J. Forkey, S. Cogne, A. Smits, S. Bogdonoff, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Time-sequenced and spectrally filtered Rayleigh imaging of shock wave and boundary layer structure for inlet characterization,” AIAA paper 93-2300 (American Institue of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Smyth, K. C.

K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, T. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, R. J. Santorro, Combust. Flame 62, 157 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. E.

R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (Wiley, New York, 1960).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Miles, W. Lempert, Appl. Phys. B 51, 1 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Berichte zur Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik (1)

S. Kampmann, Entwicklung einer zweidimensionalen Laser-Rayleigh-Temperaturmesssonde zur Untersuchung hochturbulenter Verbrennungsvorgänge in einem industriellen Drallbrenner, Berichte zur Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik (Esytec, Erlangen, Germany, 1994), Heft 94.2.

Chem. Eng. Technol. (1)

A. Leipertz, J. Haumann, M. Fiebig, Chem. Eng. Technol. 10, 190 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

K. C. Smyth, J. H. Miller, T. C. Dorfman, W. G. Mallard, R. J. Santorro, Combust. Flame 62, 157 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Tunbridge Wells, UK, 1988).

R. A. Alberty, R. J. Silbey, Physical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1992).

R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (Wiley, New York, 1960).

S. Chapman, T. G. Cowling, The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1970).

J. Forkey, S. Cogne, A. Smits, S. Bogdonoff, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Time-sequenced and spectrally filtered Rayleigh imaging of shock wave and boundary layer structure for inlet characterization,” AIAA paper 93-2300 (American Institue of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1993).

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, W. R. Lempert, “Filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements in supersonic/hypersonic facilities,” AIAA paper 92-3894 (American Institute of Astronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1992).

R. B. Miles, J. N. Forkey, N. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, “Precision whole-field velocity measurements with frequency-scanned filtered Rayleigh scattering,” presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Application of Laser Technique to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July 1994.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la molecule d’Iode (Presses du CNRS, Paris, 1978), Part 3, p. 53.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Frequency dependence of the relative intensity distribution of the irradiated laser line and the broadened Rayleigh line compared with that of the transmission curve of the iodine filter. The shaded area indicates that part of the Rayleigh intensity that can be detected in FRS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-dimensional imaging of parts of sooting flame F2, showing a, the unfiltered elastic scattering intensity distribution and b, the evaluated temperature distribution by the FRS technique. Crosses indicate the locations where the PDF’s (PDF1 and PDF2) have been calculated (see text).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Operating Conditions for the Investigated Flames in Standard Liters per Minute (SLM)

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