Abstract

We demonstrate the quality factor Q = (0.8 ± 0.1) × 1010 of whispering-gallery modes in fused-silica microspheres at 633 nm, close to the ultimate level determined by fundamental material attenuation as measured in optical fibers. The lifetime of ultimate Q is limited by adsorption of atmospheric water. Monitoring of adsorption kinetics with submonolayer sensitivity by Q factors and frequencies of whispering-gallery modes is demonstrated. The possibility of supermaterial Q’s owing to intrinsic suppression of scattering losses in micropheres is discussed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 36 (1987).
  2. V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Proc. SPIE 2097, 283 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Mabuchi, H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 19, 749 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguine, M. Brune, J. M. Raimonde, S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. H. Guenter, P. G. Wierer, Proc. SPIE 401, 266 (1983).
  7. D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, M. DiDomenico, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 527 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. M. Burkat, D. P. Dobychin, L. G. Paltiel, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 310, 376 (1990).
  10. A. W. Adamson, Physical Chemistry of Surfaces (Wiley, New York, 1977).
  11. M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Laser Phys. 2, 1004 (1992).
  12. D. S. Weiss, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Opt. Lett. 20, 1835 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

H. Mabuchi, H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 19, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Proc. SPIE 2097, 283 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguine, M. Brune, J. M. Raimonde, S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Laser Phys. 2, 1004 (1992).

1990 (1)

T. M. Burkat, D. P. Dobychin, L. G. Paltiel, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 310, 376 (1990).

1989 (1)

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 36 (1987).

1983 (1)

K. H. Guenter, P. G. Wierer, Proc. SPIE 401, 266 (1983).

1973 (1)

D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, M. DiDomenico, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 527 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Adamson, A. W.

A. W. Adamson, Physical Chemistry of Surfaces (Wiley, New York, 1977).

Braginsky, V. B.

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Proc. SPIE 2097, 283 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 36 (1987).

Brune, M.

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguine, M. Brune, J. M. Raimonde, S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burkat, T. M.

T. M. Burkat, D. P. Dobychin, L. G. Paltiel, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 310, 376 (1990).

Collot, L.

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguine, M. Brune, J. M. Raimonde, S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

DiDomenico, M.

D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, M. DiDomenico, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 527 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dobychin, D. P.

T. M. Burkat, D. P. Dobychin, L. G. Paltiel, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 310, 376 (1990).

Gorodetsky, M. L.

M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Proc. SPIE 2097, 283 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Laser Phys. 2, 1004 (1992).

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Guenter, K. H.

K. H. Guenter, P. G. Wierer, Proc. SPIE 401, 266 (1983).

Hare, J.

Haroche, S.

D. S. Weiss, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Opt. Lett. 20, 1835 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguine, M. Brune, J. M. Raimonde, S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Proc. SPIE 2097, 283 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Laser Phys. 2, 1004 (1992).

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 36 (1987).

Kimble, H. J.

Lefevre-Seguin, V.

Lefevre-Seguine, V.

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguine, M. Brune, J. M. Raimonde, S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mabuchi, H.

Ostermayer, F. W.

D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, M. DiDomenico, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 527 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Paltiel, L. G.

T. M. Burkat, D. P. Dobychin, L. G. Paltiel, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 310, 376 (1990).

Pinnow, D. A.

D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, M. DiDomenico, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 527 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J.-M.

Raimonde, J. M.

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguine, M. Brune, J. M. Raimonde, S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rich, T. C.

D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, M. DiDomenico, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 527 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

Weiss, D. S.

Wierer, P. G.

K. H. Guenter, P. G. Wierer, Proc. SPIE 401, 266 (1983).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, F. W. Ostermayer, M. DiDomenico, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 527 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguine, M. Brune, J. M. Raimonde, S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Laser Phys. 2, 1004 (1992).

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 137, 393 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Proc. SPIE 2097, 283 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Guenter, P. G. Wierer, Proc. SPIE 401, 266 (1983).

Sov. Phys. Dokl. (2)

V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 36 (1987).

T. M. Burkat, D. P. Dobychin, L. G. Paltiel, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 310, 376 (1990).

Other (1)

A. W. Adamson, Physical Chemistry of Surfaces (Wiley, New York, 1977).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mode energy damping curve for a WG mode in a 750-μm sphere. Estimated damping time τ = 2.7 μs; λ = 633 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a), (b) Effect of adsorption of atmospheric water on the damping time and (c) frequency of a WG mode in a 750-μm microsphere. (b) Illustrates the effect of 30-s bakeout at 400 °C.

Equations (4)

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Q - 1 = Q rad - 1 + Q s . s. - 1 + Q cont - 1 + Q mat - 1 ,
Q s . s . = λ 2 D 2 π 2 σ 2 B ,
Q mat = 2 π n α λ 0.9 × 10 10 .
δ = Δ ν ν n ads 2 - 1 n sil 2 - 1 D 2 ( Δ ν [ MHz ] 800 ) [ nm ] ,

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