Abstract

Photodegradation has been observed in Tm3+-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers pumped with laser diodes at 1135 nm. After upconversion lasing at 482 nm, the fiber develops color centers that absorb strongly at wavelengths below ~650 nm, affecting further upconversion lasing. The rate of damage formation is strongly dependent on the pump power level and on the thulium concentration. The color centers are bleached by intense blue light but recover with thermal excitation and can be removed by thermal annealing at temperature near 100 °C.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, B. F. Ventrudo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. H. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, K. W.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. H. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Booth, I. J.

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, B. F. Ventrudo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brocklesby, W. S.

Broer, M. M.

Brown, R. S.

Cannon, R. S.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. H. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grubb, S. G.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. H. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Humer, W. H.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. H. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

Lemaire, P. J.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lincoln, J. R.

Mackechnie, C. J.

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, B. F. Ventrudo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mathieu, A.

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ventrudo, B. F.

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, B. F. Ventrudo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. H. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, B. F. Ventrudo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy levels of Tm3+ ions in ZBLAN glass, indicating the steps involved in pumping to achieve upconversion lasing at 482 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption versus wavelength of color centers formed in Tm3+:ZBLAN fiber used in an upconversion fiber laser. The absorption is the change in transmission of the fiber over 96 h after the centers were bleached by lasing. Inset: Increase in the turn-on lasing threshold versus the time during which the laser was switched off.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Turn-on threshold of two Tm3+:ZBLAN upconversion fiber lasers versus the operating time. Squares, 2500-ppm laser; circles; 1000-ppm laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Upconversion fluorescence spectra from 1000-ppm (dashed curve) and 2500-ppm (dotted curve) doped fibers pumped at 1135 nm.

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