Abstract

We report on confocal scanning imaging through highly scattering media. Various practical effects including those of the annular pupils and the size of the confocal pinhole as well as of the numerical aperture of objectives on the image quality are examined experimentally. The combination of an annular objective with a finite-sized detector may prove advantageous for improving image quality.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, Proc. SPIE1888 (1993).
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    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).
  7. C. J. R. Sheppard, “Scanning optical microscopy,” in Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy, R. Barer, V. E. Cosslett, eds. (Academic, London, 1987), Vol. 10, pp. 1–98.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 3, 115 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, H. Zhou, Optik 93, 87 (1993).
  12. C. J. R. Sheppard, M. Gu, Appl. Opt. 30, 3563 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).
  14. M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1701 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. J. R. Sheppard, M. Gu, Opt. Commun. 84, 7 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (5)

1993 (1)

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, H. Zhou, Optik 93, 87 (1993).

1991 (2)

1988 (1)

M. Minsky, Scanning 10, 128 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1971 (1)

Alfano, R. R.

Anderson, G. E.

Davidovitz, P.

Egger, M. D.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gu, M.

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, H. Zhou, Optik 93, 87 (1993).

C. J. R. Sheppard, M. Gu, Opt. Commun. 84, 7 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, M. Gu, Appl. Opt. 30, 3563 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).

Izatt, J. A.

Kempe, M.

Knuttel, A.

Liu, F.

Minsky, M.

M. Minsky, Scanning 10, 128 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

Schmitt, J. M.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, H. Zhou, Optik 93, 87 (1993).

C. J. R. Sheppard, M. Gu, Opt. Commun. 84, 7 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, M. Gu, Appl. Opt. 30, 3563 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 3, 115 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

C. J. R. Sheppard, “Scanning optical microscopy,” in Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy, R. Barer, V. E. Cosslett, eds. (Academic, London, 1987), Vol. 10, pp. 1–98.

Swanson, E. A.

Wilson, T.

C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 3, 115 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Yadlowsky, M.

Zhou, H.

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, H. Zhou, Optik 93, 87 (1993).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, M. Gu, Opt. Commun. 84, 7 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optik (1)

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, H. Zhou, Optik 93, 87 (1993).

Scanning (1)

M. Minsky, Scanning 10, 128 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

C. J. R. Sheppard, “Scanning optical microscopy,” in Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy, R. Barer, V. E. Cosslett, eds. (Academic, London, 1987), Vol. 10, pp. 1–98.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).

B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissues, Proc. SPIE1888 (1993).

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