Abstract

We report a two-chambered, differentially pumped system that permits rapid collection of trapped atoms with a vapor cell magneto-optical trap (MOT) and efficient transfer of these atoms to a second MOT in a lower-pressure chamber. During the transfer the atoms are guided down a long, thin tube by a magnetic potential, with 90(15%) transfer efficiency. By multiply loading, we accumulate and hold as many as 30 times the number collected by the vapor cell MOT. By thus separating the collection and holding functions of a MOT, we can collect as many as 1.5(0.6) × 1010 rubidium atoms and hold them for longer than 100 s, using inexpensive low-power diode lasers.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. H. Anderson, W. Petrich, J. R. Ensher, E. A. CornellPhys. Rev. A 50, R3597 (1994 ); M. G. Peters, D. Hoffman, J. D. Tobiason, T. WalkerPhys. Rev. A 50, R906 (1994 ); J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Mathews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. CornellScience 269, 198 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, C. WiemanPhys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992 ); K. Gibble, S. Kasape, S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 17, 526 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sachett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993 ); W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3352 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z.-T. Lu, C. J. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, L. YoungPhys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. A. Cornell, C. Monroe, C. E. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2439 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, J. DalibardPhys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995 ); A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Gibble, S. Chang, R. LegerePhys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2666 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. WiemanAm. J. Phys. 60, 109 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (3)

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Mathews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. CornellScience 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, J. DalibardPhys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995 ); A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Gibble, S. Chang, R. LegerePhys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2666 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

Z.-T. Lu, C. J. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, L. YoungPhys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, W. Petrich, J. R. Ensher, E. A. CornellPhys. Rev. A 50, R3597 (1994 ); M. G. Peters, D. Hoffman, J. D. Tobiason, T. WalkerPhys. Rev. A 50, R906 (1994 ); J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sachett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993 ); W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3352 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, C. WiemanPhys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992 ); K. Gibble, S. Kasape, S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 17, 526 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. WiemanAm. J. Phys. 60, 109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. A. Cornell, C. Monroe, C. E. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2439 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. H.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Mathews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. CornellScience 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, W. Petrich, J. R. Ensher, E. A. CornellPhys. Rev. A 50, R3597 (1994 ); M. G. Peters, D. Hoffman, J. D. Tobiason, T. WalkerPhys. Rev. A 50, R906 (1994 ); J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowers, C. J.

Z.-T. Lu, C. J. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, L. YoungPhys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.

K. Gibble, S. Chang, R. LegerePhys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2666 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, C. J.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, J. DalibardPhys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995 ); A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornell, E. A.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Mathews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. CornellScience 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, W. Petrich, J. R. Ensher, E. A. CornellPhys. Rev. A 50, R3597 (1994 ); M. G. Peters, D. Hoffman, J. D. Tobiason, T. WalkerPhys. Rev. A 50, R906 (1994 ); J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sachett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993 ); W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3352 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Cornell, C. Monroe, C. E. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2439 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coulter, K. P.

Z.-T. Lu, C. J. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, L. YoungPhys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalibard, J.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, J. DalibardPhys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995 ); A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, N. H.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, J. DalibardPhys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995 ); A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ensher, J. R.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Mathews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. CornellScience 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, W. Petrich, J. R. Ensher, E. A. CornellPhys. Rev. A 50, R3597 (1994 ); M. G. Peters, D. Hoffman, J. D. Tobiason, T. WalkerPhys. Rev. A 50, R906 (1994 ); J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freedman, S. J.

Z.-T. Lu, C. J. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, L. YoungPhys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujikawa, B. K.

Z.-T. Lu, C. J. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, L. YoungPhys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibble, K.

K. Gibble, S. Chang, R. LegerePhys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2666 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legere, R.

K. Gibble, S. Chang, R. LegerePhys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2666 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindquist, K.

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, C. WiemanPhys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992 ); K. Gibble, S. Kasape, S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 17, 526 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z.-T.

Z.-T. Lu, C. J. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, L. YoungPhys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacAdam, K. B.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. WiemanAm. J. Phys. 60, 109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mathews, M. R.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Mathews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. CornellScience 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monroe, C.

E. A. Cornell, C. Monroe, C. E. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2439 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monroe, C. R.

C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sachett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993 ); W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3352 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mortara, J. L.

Z.-T. Lu, C. J. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, L. YoungPhys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myatt, C. J.

C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sachett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993 ); W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3352 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrin, H.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, J. DalibardPhys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995 ); A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrich, W.

M. H. Anderson, W. Petrich, J. R. Ensher, E. A. CornellPhys. Rev. A 50, R3597 (1994 ); M. G. Peters, D. Hoffman, J. D. Tobiason, T. WalkerPhys. Rev. A 50, R906 (1994 ); J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, H.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sachett, C. A.

C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sachett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993 ); W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3352 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shang, S.-Q.

Z.-T. Lu, C. J. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, L. YoungPhys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steane, A. M.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, J. DalibardPhys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995 ); A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbach, A.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. WiemanAm. J. Phys. 60, 109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, M.

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, C. WiemanPhys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992 ); K. Gibble, S. Kasape, S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 17, 526 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, W.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szriftgiser, P.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, J. DalibardPhys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995 ); A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townsend, C. G.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, J. DalibardPhys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995 ); A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieman, C.

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, C. WiemanPhys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992 ); K. Gibble, S. Kasape, S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 17, 526 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. WiemanAm. J. Phys. 60, 109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieman, C. E.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Mathews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. CornellScience 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sachett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993 ); W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3352 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Cornell, C. Monroe, C. E. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2439 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, L.

Z.-T. Lu, C. J. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, L. YoungPhys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zetie, K. P.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, J. DalibardPhys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995 ); A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. WiemanAm. J. Phys. 60, 109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, C. WiemanPhys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992 ); K. Gibble, S. Kasape, S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 17, 526 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, W. Petrich, J. R. Ensher, E. A. CornellPhys. Rev. A 50, R3597 (1994 ); M. G. Peters, D. Hoffman, J. D. Tobiason, T. WalkerPhys. Rev. A 50, R906 (1994 ); J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, J. DalibardPhys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995 ); A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

K. Gibble, S. Chang, R. LegerePhys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2666 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sachett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993 ); W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3352 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-T. Lu, C. J. Bowers, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. L. Mortara, S.-Q. Shang, K. P. Coulter, L. YoungPhys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3791 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Cornell, C. Monroe, C. E. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2439 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. WiemanPhys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Mathews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. CornellScience 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Vacuum system, which is composed of two differentially pumped conflat crosses connected by a 40-cm-long, 1.1-cm-inner-diameter transfer tube. The vapor cell is pumped by an 11-L/s ion pump, and the low-pressure chamber by a 30-L/s ion pump and a small titanium sublimation pump. Six wires and/or three strips of uniformly magnetized rubber lie along the tube to create a hexapole magnetic field. A window is aligned along the direction of the transfer tube, and through it we direct the push beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence of 85Rb atoms multiply loaded in the lower MOT as a function of the number of loads. The time between loads is 2.2 s. In the trace marked by triangles the atoms are transferred in the |3, 3〉 state, and the 1/e fill time for collecting atoms is 44 s. The trace marked by circles indicates atoms that are transferred in the |2, 2〉 state with a fill time of 95 s. The difference in the initial slope illustrates the difference in single load transfer efficiency for the two cases.

Equations (1)

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d N d t = R ( 1 τ b + 1 τ ex ) N ,

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