Abstract

We propose that thin films of tetragonal chalcopyrite-structure semiconductor media are promising nonlinear-optical (NLO) materials for the following reasons: Phase matching is possible with them in principle, they can be utilized in a waveguide geometry, and they are compatible with III–V substrates. We investigate the second-order NLO properties of chalcopyrite-structure CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 thin films grown on GaAs(001), using optical second-harmonic (SH) generation at a fundamental wavelength of 790 nm. The SH intensities produced by approximately stoichiometric CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 thin films are similar to that of GaAs. The second-order optical nonlinearities are strongly curtailed in nonstoichiometric thin films.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. ByerIEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. M. FejerPhys. Today 47(5), 25 (1994).
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  3. S. Janz, C. Fernando, H. Dai, F. Chatenoud, M. Dion, R. NormandinOpt. Lett. 18, 589 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Janz, F. Chatenoud, R. NormandinOpt. Lett. 19, 622 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. H. Qu, D. J. Bottomley, H Ruda, A. J. Spring-ThorpePhys. Rev. B 50, 5703 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. SasakiJ. Cryst. Growth 129, 81 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Madelunged., Physics of Ternary Compounds, sub-vol. h of Vol. 17, Semiconductors, Landolt-Börnstein Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985).
  8. G. C. BharJpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, Suppl. 32-3, 653 (1993).
  9. G. D. Boyd, H. M. Kasper, J. H. McFee, F. G. StorzIEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 900 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Niki, Y. Makita, A. Yamada, O. Hellman, P. J. Fons, A. Obara, Y. Okada, R. Shioda, H. Oyanagi, T. Kurafuji, S. Chichibu, H. NakanishiJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1201 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Okada, R. Shioda, S. Niki, A. Yamada, H. Oyanagi, Y. Makita, presented at the Solid State Devices and Materials Conference, Yokohama, Japan, August 1994.
  12. C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, Th. Rasing, O. A. AktsipetrovJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 33 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. N. Butcher, D. CotterThe Elements of Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Shioda, Y. Okada, H. Oyanagi, S. Niki, A. Yamada, Y. MakitaJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1196 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Ghahramani, D. J. Moss, J. E. SipePhys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2815 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

S. Niki, Y. Makita, A. Yamada, O. Hellman, P. J. Fons, A. Obara, Y. Okada, R. Shioda, H. Oyanagi, T. Kurafuji, S. Chichibu, H. NakanishiJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Shioda, Y. Okada, H. Oyanagi, S. Niki, A. Yamada, Y. MakitaJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, Th. Rasing, O. A. AktsipetrovJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 33 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

S. Janz, F. Chatenoud, R. NormandinOpt. Lett. 19, 622 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. FejerPhys. Today 47(5), 25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Qu, D. J. Bottomley, H Ruda, A. J. Spring-ThorpePhys. Rev. B 50, 5703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

T. SasakiJ. Cryst. Growth 129, 81 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. C. BharJpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, Suppl. 32-3, 653 (1993).

S. Janz, C. Fernando, H. Dai, F. Chatenoud, M. Dion, R. NormandinOpt. Lett. 18, 589 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. ByerIEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

E. Ghahramani, D. J. Moss, J. E. SipePhys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2815 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

G. D. Boyd, H. M. Kasper, J. H. McFee, F. G. StorzIEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 900 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

Bhar, G. C.

G. C. BharJpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, Suppl. 32-3, 653 (1993).

Bottomley, D. J.

X. H. Qu, D. J. Bottomley, H Ruda, A. J. Spring-ThorpePhys. Rev. B 50, 5703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, H. M. Kasper, J. H. McFee, F. G. StorzIEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 900 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Butcher, P. N.

P. N. Butcher, D. CotterThe Elements of Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. ByerIEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chatenoud, F.

Chichibu, S.

S. Niki, Y. Makita, A. Yamada, O. Hellman, P. J. Fons, A. Obara, Y. Okada, R. Shioda, H. Oyanagi, T. Kurafuji, S. Chichibu, H. NakanishiJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, D.

P. N. Butcher, D. CotterThe Elements of Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H.

Devillers, M. A. C.

Dion, M.

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. FejerPhys. Today 47(5), 25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. ByerIEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fernando, C.

Fons, P. J.

S. Niki, Y. Makita, A. Yamada, O. Hellman, P. J. Fons, A. Obara, Y. Okada, R. Shioda, H. Oyanagi, T. Kurafuji, S. Chichibu, H. NakanishiJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ghahramani, E.

E. Ghahramani, D. J. Moss, J. E. SipePhys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2815 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellman, O.

S. Niki, Y. Makita, A. Yamada, O. Hellman, P. J. Fons, A. Obara, Y. Okada, R. Shioda, H. Oyanagi, T. Kurafuji, S. Chichibu, H. NakanishiJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. ByerIEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, H. M.

G. D. Boyd, H. M. Kasper, J. H. McFee, F. G. StorzIEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 900 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kurafuji, T.

S. Niki, Y. Makita, A. Yamada, O. Hellman, P. J. Fons, A. Obara, Y. Okada, R. Shioda, H. Oyanagi, T. Kurafuji, S. Chichibu, H. NakanishiJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. ByerIEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Makita, Y.

S. Niki, Y. Makita, A. Yamada, O. Hellman, P. J. Fons, A. Obara, Y. Okada, R. Shioda, H. Oyanagi, T. Kurafuji, S. Chichibu, H. NakanishiJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Shioda, Y. Okada, H. Oyanagi, S. Niki, A. Yamada, Y. MakitaJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada, R. Shioda, S. Niki, A. Yamada, H. Oyanagi, Y. Makita, presented at the Solid State Devices and Materials Conference, Yokohama, Japan, August 1994.

McFee, J. H.

G. D. Boyd, H. M. Kasper, J. H. McFee, F. G. StorzIEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 900 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

E. Ghahramani, D. J. Moss, J. E. SipePhys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2815 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakanishi, H.

S. Niki, Y. Makita, A. Yamada, O. Hellman, P. J. Fons, A. Obara, Y. Okada, R. Shioda, H. Oyanagi, T. Kurafuji, S. Chichibu, H. NakanishiJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Niki, S.

S. Niki, Y. Makita, A. Yamada, O. Hellman, P. J. Fons, A. Obara, Y. Okada, R. Shioda, H. Oyanagi, T. Kurafuji, S. Chichibu, H. NakanishiJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Shioda, Y. Okada, H. Oyanagi, S. Niki, A. Yamada, Y. MakitaJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada, R. Shioda, S. Niki, A. Yamada, H. Oyanagi, Y. Makita, presented at the Solid State Devices and Materials Conference, Yokohama, Japan, August 1994.

Normandin, R.

Obara, A.

S. Niki, Y. Makita, A. Yamada, O. Hellman, P. J. Fons, A. Obara, Y. Okada, R. Shioda, H. Oyanagi, T. Kurafuji, S. Chichibu, H. NakanishiJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Okada, Y.

S. Niki, Y. Makita, A. Yamada, O. Hellman, P. J. Fons, A. Obara, Y. Okada, R. Shioda, H. Oyanagi, T. Kurafuji, S. Chichibu, H. NakanishiJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Shioda, Y. Okada, H. Oyanagi, S. Niki, A. Yamada, Y. MakitaJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada, R. Shioda, S. Niki, A. Yamada, H. Oyanagi, Y. Makita, presented at the Solid State Devices and Materials Conference, Yokohama, Japan, August 1994.

Oyanagi, H.

R. Shioda, Y. Okada, H. Oyanagi, S. Niki, A. Yamada, Y. MakitaJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Niki, Y. Makita, A. Yamada, O. Hellman, P. J. Fons, A. Obara, Y. Okada, R. Shioda, H. Oyanagi, T. Kurafuji, S. Chichibu, H. NakanishiJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada, R. Shioda, S. Niki, A. Yamada, H. Oyanagi, Y. Makita, presented at the Solid State Devices and Materials Conference, Yokohama, Japan, August 1994.

Qu, X. H.

X. H. Qu, D. J. Bottomley, H Ruda, A. J. Spring-ThorpePhys. Rev. B 50, 5703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

Ruda, H

X. H. Qu, D. J. Bottomley, H Ruda, A. J. Spring-ThorpePhys. Rev. B 50, 5703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

T. SasakiJ. Cryst. Growth 129, 81 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shioda, R.

S. Niki, Y. Makita, A. Yamada, O. Hellman, P. J. Fons, A. Obara, Y. Okada, R. Shioda, H. Oyanagi, T. Kurafuji, S. Chichibu, H. NakanishiJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Shioda, Y. Okada, H. Oyanagi, S. Niki, A. Yamada, Y. MakitaJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada, R. Shioda, S. Niki, A. Yamada, H. Oyanagi, Y. Makita, presented at the Solid State Devices and Materials Conference, Yokohama, Japan, August 1994.

Sipe, J. E.

E. Ghahramani, D. J. Moss, J. E. SipePhys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2815 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spring-Thorpe, A. J.

X. H. Qu, D. J. Bottomley, H Ruda, A. J. Spring-ThorpePhys. Rev. B 50, 5703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Storz, F. G.

G. D. Boyd, H. M. Kasper, J. H. McFee, F. G. StorzIEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 900 (1972).
[CrossRef]

van Hasselt, C. W.

Yamada, A.

S. Niki, Y. Makita, A. Yamada, O. Hellman, P. J. Fons, A. Obara, Y. Okada, R. Shioda, H. Oyanagi, T. Kurafuji, S. Chichibu, H. NakanishiJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Shioda, Y. Okada, H. Oyanagi, S. Niki, A. Yamada, Y. MakitaJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada, R. Shioda, S. Niki, A. Yamada, H. Oyanagi, Y. Makita, presented at the Solid State Devices and Materials Conference, Yokohama, Japan, August 1994.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

G. D. Boyd, H. M. Kasper, J. H. McFee, F. G. StorzIEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 900 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. ByerIEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (3)

S. Niki, Y. Makita, A. Yamada, O. Hellman, P. J. Fons, A. Obara, Y. Okada, R. Shioda, H. Oyanagi, T. Kurafuji, S. Chichibu, H. NakanishiJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. SasakiJ. Cryst. Growth 129, 81 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Shioda, Y. Okada, H. Oyanagi, S. Niki, A. Yamada, Y. MakitaJ. Cryst. Growth 150, 1196 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. C. BharJpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, Suppl. 32-3, 653 (1993).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

X. H. Qu, D. J. Bottomley, H Ruda, A. J. Spring-ThorpePhys. Rev. B 50, 5703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Ghahramani, D. J. Moss, J. E. SipePhys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2815 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

M. M. FejerPhys. Today 47(5), 25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. N. Butcher, D. CotterThe Elements of Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okada, R. Shioda, S. Niki, A. Yamada, H. Oyanagi, Y. Makita, presented at the Solid State Devices and Materials Conference, Yokohama, Japan, August 1994.

O. Madelunged., Physics of Ternary Compounds, sub-vol. h of Vol. 17, Semiconductors, Landolt-Börnstein Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The chalcopyrite structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

I p , s ( 2 ω ) ( ψ ) from (a) a CuInSe2 thin film (sample CIS206), (b) a CuGaSe2 thin film (sample CGS265), and (c) GaAs(001). The data (points) are to scale; the curves are fits using relation (2).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Compositions and the Linear and SHG Properties of the Nominally CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 Thin Films

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I g , p ( 2 ω ) ( ψ ) | A + B cos ( 2 ψ ) | 2 ,
I p , s ( 2 ω ) ( ψ ) | B sin ( 2 ψ ) | 2 ,
E p , s ( 2 ω ) ( ψ ) 2 χ 14 ( 2 ) f c f s sin ( 2 ψ ) ,
E s , p ( 2 ω ) ( ψ ) χ 36 ( 2 ) F s cos ( 2 ψ ) ,
E p , p ( 2 ω ) ( ψ ) [ 2 χ 14 ( 2 ) F c f c f s χ 36 ( 2 ) F s f c 2 ] cos ( 2 ψ ) ,

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