Abstract

We present a lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramic wafer–based electro-optic dynamic diverging lens. A quadratic refractive-index modulation is induced by application of a linearly changing electrical field inside a flat PLZT wafer. The design offers a simple and compact structure that produces a smooth phase modulation distribution. A fabricated dynamic lens of 2 mm × 2 mm demonstrates a continuous variable focal length from infinity with no applied voltage to negative 0.77 m with a voltage of 400 V.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Nagata, H. HonmaJpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Suppl. 2), 167 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. UtsunomiyaFerroelectrics 109,235 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Q. W. Song, P. J. Talbot, J. H. MauriceJ. Mod. Opt. 41, 717 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Q. W. Song, X.-M. Wang, R. Bussjager, J. Osman“Electro-optic beam-steering device based on a lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic wafer,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  5. J. A. Thomas, Y. FainmanOpt. Lett. 20, 1510 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Sato, T. Tatebayashi, T. Yamamoto, K. HayashiProc. SPIE 1319, 493 ( 1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Tatebayashi, T. Yamamoto, H. SatoAppl. Opt. 30, 5049 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Tatebayashi, T. Yamamoto, H. SatoAppl. Opt. 31, 2770 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. H. GoldsteinOpt. Eng. 34, 1589 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. A. Riza, M. C. DeJuleOpt. Lett. 19, 1013 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

1994 (2)

N. A. Riza, M. C. DeJuleOpt. Lett. 19, 1013 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. W. Song, P. J. Talbot, J. H. MauriceJ. Mod. Opt. 41, 717 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

H. Sato, T. Tatebayashi, T. Yamamoto, K. HayashiProc. SPIE 1319, 493 ( 1990).
[CrossRef]

T. UtsunomiyaFerroelectrics 109,235 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. Nagata, H. HonmaJpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Suppl. 2), 167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bussjager, R.

Q. W. Song, X.-M. Wang, R. Bussjager, J. Osman“Electro-optic beam-steering device based on a lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic wafer,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

DeJule, M. C.

Fainman, Y.

Goldstein, D. H.

D. H. GoldsteinOpt. Eng. 34, 1589 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, K.

H. Sato, T. Tatebayashi, T. Yamamoto, K. HayashiProc. SPIE 1319, 493 ( 1990).
[CrossRef]

Honma, H.

K. Nagata, H. HonmaJpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Suppl. 2), 167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Maurice, J. H.

Q. W. Song, P. J. Talbot, J. H. MauriceJ. Mod. Opt. 41, 717 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, K.

K. Nagata, H. HonmaJpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Suppl. 2), 167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Osman, J.

Q. W. Song, X.-M. Wang, R. Bussjager, J. Osman“Electro-optic beam-steering device based on a lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic wafer,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Riza, N. A.

Sato, H.

Song, Q. W.

Q. W. Song, P. J. Talbot, J. H. MauriceJ. Mod. Opt. 41, 717 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. W. Song, X.-M. Wang, R. Bussjager, J. Osman“Electro-optic beam-steering device based on a lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic wafer,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Talbot, P. J.

Q. W. Song, P. J. Talbot, J. H. MauriceJ. Mod. Opt. 41, 717 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tatebayashi, T.

Thomas, J. A.

Utsunomiya, T.

T. UtsunomiyaFerroelectrics 109,235 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.-M.

Q. W. Song, X.-M. Wang, R. Bussjager, J. Osman“Electro-optic beam-steering device based on a lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic wafer,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Yamamoto, T.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Ferroelectrics (1)

T. UtsunomiyaFerroelectrics 109,235 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

Q. W. Song, P. J. Talbot, J. H. MauriceJ. Mod. Opt. 41, 717 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Nagata, H. HonmaJpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Suppl. 2), 167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. H. GoldsteinOpt. Eng. 34, 1589 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Sato, T. Tatebayashi, T. Yamamoto, K. HayashiProc. SPIE 1319, 493 ( 1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Q. W. Song, X.-M. Wang, R. Bussjager, J. Osman“Electro-optic beam-steering device based on a lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic wafer,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional view of the PLZT-based electro-optic variable cylindrical lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Far-field patterns of a laser beam passing through the device (a) without the external source, (b) with an applied voltage of 200 V, and (c) with an applied voltage of 400 V.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Focusing effect of the device combined with a converging lens (a) without the external source, (b) with an applied voltage of 200 V, and (c) with an applied voltage of 400 V.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-dimensional focusing effect with two crossed dynamic cylindrical lenses put back to back (a) without the external source and (b) with an applied voltage of 600 V. The pictures were taken at the focal plane of the device that is illuminated by a Gaussian beam.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n = 1 2 n 0 3 R 12 E 2 ,
E ( x ) = 2 V W t | x | ,
exp ( j k 2 n 0 3 R 12 V 2 W 2 t x 2 ) .
f = W 2 t 4 n 0 3 R 12 V 2 .

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