Abstract

We have found that borosilicate glasses that produce second-harmonic generation after simultaneous irradiation by fields at ω and 2ω exhibit postexposure selective etching. We use the charge specificity of the selective etching process to spatially map the photoexcited electron distributions responsible for second-harmonic generation. The results show that nearly symmetric nondipolar charge distributions exist for some regimes of encoding and that, at higher intensities, a nearly dipolar distribution is produced.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. T. J. Driscoll, N. M. Lawandy, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper JTuA4.
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    [CrossRef]

1995 (2)

S. Li, J. B. Khurgin, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 115, 466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Sauvain, J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Lett. 20, 243 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

1992 (2)

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 83 (1992).

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 269 (1992).

1991 (2)

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, J. E. Sipe, Opt. Lett. 16, 796 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Selker, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 77, 339 (1991).

1990 (3)

N. M. Lawandy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1745 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 849 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Baranova, A. N. Chudinov, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Opt. Commun. 79, 116 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

Y. Sasaki, Y. Ohmori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 466 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

K. Miyazacki, T. Sato, H. Kashiwagi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1154 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. Z.

Baranova, N. B.

N. B. Baranova, A. N. Chudinov, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Opt. Commun. 79, 116 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chudinov, A. N.

N. B. Baranova, A. N. Chudinov, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Opt. Commun. 79, 116 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 269 (1992).

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 83 (1992).

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 849 (1990).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

D. M. Krol, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MSS2.

Dominic, V.

Driscoll, T. J.

T. J. Driscoll, N. M. Lawandy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 355 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Driscoll, N. M. Lawandy, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper JTuA4.

Feinberg, J.

Kashiwagi, H.

K. Miyazacki, T. Sato, H. Kashiwagi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1154 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 83 (1992).

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 269 (1992).

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 849 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

S. Li, J. B. Khurgin, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 115, 466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

D. M. Krol, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MSS2.

Kyung, J. H.

Lawandy, N. M.

E. Sauvain, J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Lett. 20, 243 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Li, J. B. Khurgin, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 115, 466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Driscoll, N. M. Lawandy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 355 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Selker, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 77, 339 (1991).

N. M. Lawandy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1745 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Driscoll, N. M. Lawandy, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper JTuA4.

Li, S.

S. Li, J. B. Khurgin, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 115, 466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

Miyazacki, K.

K. Miyazacki, T. Sato, H. Kashiwagi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1154 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

Ohmori, Y.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Ohmori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 466 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Osterberg, U.

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Sasaki, Y. Ohmori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 466 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

K. Miyazacki, T. Sato, H. Kashiwagi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1154 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sauvain, E.

Selker, M. D.

M. D. Selker, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 77, 339 (1991).

Simpson, J. R.

D. M. Krol, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MSS2.

Sipe, J. E.

Starodubov, D. S.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 83 (1992).

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 269 (1992).

Stolen, R. H.

Tom, H. W. K.

Ya. Zel’dovich, B.

N. B. Baranova, A. N. Chudinov, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Opt. Commun. 79, 116 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yu. Stepanov, D.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 269 (1992).

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 83 (1992).

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 849 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Sasaki, Y. Ohmori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 466 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (3)

S. Li, J. B. Khurgin, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 115, 466 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Baranova, A. N. Chudinov, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Opt. Commun. 79, 116 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Selker, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 77, 339 (1991).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K. Miyazacki, T. Sato, H. Kashiwagi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1154 (1979).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1745 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 849 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Lightwave Commun. (2)

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 83 (1992).

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 269 (1992).

Other (2)

T. J. Driscoll, N. M. Lawandy, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper JTuA4.

D. M. Krol, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MSS2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Profiles of (a) the 532-nm preparation and (b) the 1.064-μm readout beams measured at the face of the sample, in which the diameters were found to be 118 and 148 μm, respectively. The same 1.064-μm beam was used to read out the second-harmonic radiation pattern in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CCD images of the radiated second-harmonic far-field mode patterns generated in SK5 glass. The two-lobed pattern (a) was generated with encoding peak intensities of 4 and 1 GW/cm2 at the fundamental and second-harmonic beams, respectively. We generated the solid-mode pattern (b) by increasing the fundamental beam intensity to 8.3 GW/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM image of the etch pattern resulting from exposure of the glass to a solid Gaussian beam at 532 nm with an encoding peak intensity of 1 GW/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AFM image of the etched pattern that resulted in the two-lobed far-field radiated mode shown in Fig. 2(a). When collinearly polarized beams with vertical polarization were used to encode the glass, the etched pattern was clearly two lobed and aligned along the vertical polarization. The polarization axis is parallel to the vertical side of the image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM images of the etch patterns for preparation at the two intensities used in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b), which radiated double-lobed and solid second-harmonic modes, respectively. The AFM images in (a) and (b) correspond to the higher- and lower-intensity encoding of horizontally translated spots that are shown without any shift or change in their relative position and size, respectively. The vertical polarization axis is parallel to the vertical side of the image.

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